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Dylan Ho Unit 3, Assignment 1, Task 4
Transcript of Dylan Ho Unit 3, Assignment 1, Task 4
Features of information systems
What is data?
Any raw data inputted within the system must consider the integrity of the content.
The recorded data should be stored in the most logical method.
New data can be processed via computer or personnel to convert the raw data into useful information.
This refers to what the organisation uses the type of hardware for information systems.
for a small business the organisation would use the manager's PC to store information. However, for larger companies they would consider on using big servers to store data. The server can be programmed to share or store data.
There are people involved with the process of either capturing data or distributing the information. for organisations it is crucial that they capture every single piece of information related to the subject. this is also reflects on the information being exploited to the public or other department.
Example of raw data
Example of people in a business
Example of a server
Example of a computer
The organisation would use software to either process information or store information. They would consider on Microsoft Office with Access to process data into report information.
With Access the bank manager can use this to create a database system for their customer credit accounts or contact information. Access is useful for creating forms and reports for the bank organisation. The forms are useful for the customer to input data. whilst reports are good for the administrator or MIS.
Some software can be bought either Bespoke or proprietary. with proprietary they are usually expensive but very highly efficient. With bespoke software these are usually tailor-made for the organisation.
Microsoft Office 2013
Management Information Systems refers to a system that processed via a computer. With MIS this offers the manager of the organisation the necessary tools to organise, evaluate to efficiently manage any relevant departments within the organsation.
MIS are also useful for decision support via the using queries and responses
Example of a Management Information System
Information can be distributed across the organisation's local intranet with already installed firewall system within the network.
The firewall system helps prevent unauthorised access exploiting the valuable information making the organisation secure.
To reinforce the security higher the organisation can use a dedicated telecommunications network system to provide a higher security system.
Example of a dedicated telecommunications network
Functions of information systems
Control & feedback loops
Closed and open Systems
The raw data collected is inputted in the computer ready to be processed. With input information this is the basis of processing the output version.
However the computer needs extra instructions from the user. This is done by telling the computer what analysis they need for future purposes.
Example of input data; tally, questionnaire and forms
The processed data and the inputted data must be stored in a logical method. this can be done either virtual meaning USB, Servers, HDD, Disks and even the Cloud.
The data should be backed up regularly to prevent any data loss or if data file is corrupted, backing up can restore the file.
With Cloud storage today, the user can upload data to the cloud system and re-download the data either on another device. This is also good for backing up necessary files.
Apple ICloud Technology
Examples of Storage device
Processing is turning raw data into useful information for the user to understand. With processing this can do basic or advanced arithmetic calculations, sorting data into a more logical method. An input data is needed in order to process the information for the end output,
The process is done via the CPU (Central Processing Unit).
With information processing this can also be used to query items or database records, such as price retrieval when the bar code is scanned into the system (input).
This shows how data is transformed into information
There are two types of output Graphical and textual. When information has been processed then this is presented in a visual format, so that it is easier to understand for the user.
With Graphical output the processed information is presented in a variety of charts, diagrams, graphs and even images. There are some people that are visual learners so the output can be presented this way making them easier to understand the information
With Textual output the processed information is presented in many alpha and numeric characters. This is usually in the form of Reports, Statements, invoices etc. This is useful for analysing the in depth detail of the content. and to know the exact results.
Example of graphical outputs
Example of Textual outputs
The control or feedback loop is considered from the output result and can affect the entire process depending on the necessary changes required for future inputs of the information system.
The feedback process works via inputting data, storing data, processing data, producing the outcome and either change or adapt via the feedback loop. This is beneficial to the organsation for making improvements on better information quality and content.
The feedback can operate many times the user requires in order for a successful business in the future.
Example of a feedback loop for information.
This refers back to feedback system. There are two types of feedback the first being the closed and the second being the open system.
Closed: These sometimes limit the user with any output formats, due to the system being predefined. Close systems are generally efficient to operate. Commonly uses graphical output styles and is aimed at the management.
Open: These provide the adaptability for the user to consider; what to report on and the output format the information is presented. However, training is required in order to operate the systems efficiently. With open systems these can be displayed both of the graphical and textual output formats. This is intended for analysts to use.
Open Feedback System
Close Feedback System
Types of information systems
Dylan Ho Unit 3 - Assignment 1, Task 4, P4P5M1
Human Resource Systems
Human Resource Systems
With Sales performance a business or an organisation can identify the area and how their sales either increases or the business improves. This benefit towards the organisation via the performance they have shown.
Moreover, the manager can use the sales performance system to boost the sales even further via producing advertising campaigns, have a reduced bargaining event throughout the branches of the organisation. This information system is beneficial towards the ogranisation to increase business reputation.
Competitors would try to outperform the current business. They would either sell the same competing products, opening any new competing store branch as well as reducing the prices to attract the customers to visit them.
The manager can use the Marketing systems to review what the other competing businesses have or changed and adapts this to their own business to stay in the game with the competitors.
The information system can indicate what the effect it has on the business via the constant changes of the competitors.
Example of competitors all reaching for the same goal.
With information systems this can be used to increase the sales of the business
With the aid of spreadsheets this can support and manage any regular costs within the organisation industry. However with information systems they usually locate trends and patterns within the content.
With financial costs they usually query lots of questions relating to the finances.
With a operational information system this can provide the ability to manage any incomes, expenses and the revenue,
A bank organisation wants to gain the understanding of the investment portfolios. There are some investment options that can lead to a high risk but can offer a high return as well and vice versa with the low risk offering low return. There are times that the risk are low and does not offer the return at all. With the support of the information systems this can help to indicate what each investment offers refers to which category.
Example of how the investment return works
With information systems the manager can be able to track the quantity of employees. the manager can be able to indicate what each employee is doing what work, the correct skills applied. With the aid of the information systems this can be able to identify staff turnovers, personal details such as age, gender and experience portfolios.
Example of a HR Information system for staffing purposes
This is the advanced extension of the Staffing. this basically covers any staff training course, skills and experience development for the professional department. With analysis from the manager this can be beneficial to locate the suitable candidate for certain job roles and any potential training requirements for employees.
Management information systems
With MIS these are considered as a decision support system. The process is done via a method of input queries and processed into summarise output. this is often used from the management wants to question the business regularly.
The two common questions, asked by the management is generally...
"List the top ten stores of best sales service via monthly, whether; product type, percentage change. This benefits the management as it identifies the flagships of the stores.
"Find this month's averages sales via daily or weekly, product type etc. This is also benefits to the management as they can plan out what certain staff can be available for different time slots.
With MIS this is beneficial to the business organisation that is easy to interpret the information effectively from the senior management.
The output can be presented either table reports, graphical formats making it understandable to the end user.
With the aid of MIS the answers or information is processed quickly making it time efficient for the user.
For a the MIS to be effective yet efficeint then it must meet the following requirements for the user. By considering the accuracy of the MIS the information provided must be very reliable. Also, the data must consider the integrity of the information supplied within the organisatoin
The information supplied by the organisation has to be accurate yet the content is sustainable. This means that the information sourced or distributed must be available either weekly basis or monthly basis.
The information should be updated regularly and the correct time period.
This is how the information displayed according to chronological time order. The times indicated must be consistent and accurate.
This can refer to the business opening hours and when the sales commence.
For an international organisation the times will be local time depending on the business' country or area.
The end user must be confident that their MIS for it to be operated. This means that any malfunctions or faults identified within the data, processes, the computer system and even stored information must be require immediate attention.
When new updates or upgrades towards the system is announced the user must be informed of this upgrade or update. reassuring them that this can improve the quality of the system interface.
Information flow diagram
With the sales department. they are interested in what products have been sold, to which customers the products have been sold to and how much it has been sold for.
They would consider the sales analysis of the business, coming from other information sources; such as marketing data, customer details and their type, products and its groups as well as the salesperson to provide them the bonus purposes.
The data used is organised by the time of day, day of week. this is then reviewed back on the previous sales statements showing the comparison of sales.
The purchasing department focus their interests on mainly how the business' suppliers perform. Via referring to the price , lead time, fewest problems involved as well as the availability of the product.
The purchasing department would need to research and locate the best product supplier with the following requirements; cheaper price than the competitor supplier. Also, the delivery process is considered as well as the reliability of the supplier is recommended.
The "PD" would need to refer the data consisting of; stock quantities, sales figures and researching the competitor products.in order to process the information.
The manufacturing department represents on how efficient they can be within the business industry. they would consider on analysing the data of their employees, machinery available and how efficiently they can manufacture a high quality product. The Manufacturing department would also try to reduce any wastage involved to a minimum. With constant change of demands the manufacturing department must also adapt quickly to keep the production line in operational.
With Marketing department they are focus their information based on customers, business competitors. The marketing department would consider the following as high importance consisting of "sales from customers", "type of customers", "what product is popular sold to the customers", "producing advertisements and promotional offers to a typical customer".
With the role of Marketing they would review the external competitor businesses' actions to indicate how they are attracting their customers and adapt the idea to use within their business.
Example on how the marketing works.
Example on how the manufacturing works.
Example on how the purchasing works.
The finance department is generally split from "financial accounting" and "Management accounting"
With Financial accounting they are focused on how much money the business organisation has left. This also refers to the income and expenditure of the business.
However, with Management accounting they are focused on how much the money is spent within the organisation. They would consider the departments on how much money they have spent as well.
Example of financial accounting procedures.
This is considered as "Human Resources" or the personnel department. Their purpose is to review and analyse information about employees of the business, they would also refer the staff turnovers, the average staff wages and they would also make note of each individual having days off due to sickness. With HR they would take account on each employee individual hours they have worked with this it reflects on the labour laws and staff agreements of the business organisation.
Example of a HRM system and how the Human resource use this for each staff member.
The Administration department applies to the whole organisation company. Their purpose is to create many reports for the whole organisation.
they can source departmental information and process this into other useful information.
The data the Admin department used consists of; Data about revenues, income and expenditure, assets, investments, personal information and produce this into report format for the manager purposes or departmental purposes.
The role of Admin to distribute information to other relevant deparment management.