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Canine Heartworm Project

Dirofilaria immits
by

Savannah Santos

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Canine Heartworm Project

Canine Heartworm
By: Audrey Banaga, Jade Mahan, Francesca Rankin & Savannah Santos
Two different types of medication:
Thiacetarsamide
(Caparsolate) or
Melarsamine
(Immiticide)
~Doesn’t kill all of the worms in a lot of cases
~Side effects: vomiting, kidney failure, and sometimes death
~After Caparsolate, the doctor will give the dog microfilaria.
• The signs of heartworm disease depend on the number of worms and the size of the dog
• The typical early signs of heartworm infestation are tiring easily, exercising intolerance, and a soft, deep cough
• As the disease progresses, these symptoms become more severe:
• Canine Heartworm is a parasitic roundworm that is spread from host to host through the bite of a mosquito
• Heartworms go through various life stages before they're able to infect a host
Life Cycle (cont.)
Natural History
Life Cycle
How do you get rid of it?
What is it like to have it?
How do you contract it?
(Dirofilaria immits)
Works Cited:
Mosquito vector species obtain microfilariae, the first stage larvae, while feeding on an infected host.
Development of microfilariae to the infective third stage occurs within 1-4 weeks.
When mature, the larvae would travel to the lambium of the mosquito and would erupt through the tip when the mosquito feeds on a host.
The microfilariae enters the bloodstream of an animal.
It takes about 6 months for the larvae to mature into adult worms.
They can't mature until they pass through the mosquito.
In dogs, the worms may live up to 7 years.
• weight loss
• breathes more rapidly
• may cough after exercise to the point of fainting
• coughing up blood
• congestive heart failure
• Rarely, migrating heartworm larvae get "lost" and end up in unusual sites, such as the eye, brain, or an artery in the leg, which results in unusual symptoms: blindness, seizures and physical disabilities
First published description of heartworm in dogs in the United States appeared more than 100 years ago in an issue of "The West Journal of Medicine and Surgery."

Heartworm in cats was first described in the early 1920s.
"AHS offers guidance in face of Immiticide shortage." DVM Newsmagazine Sept. 2011: 22. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Mar. 2013.

"Heartworm Disease: Introduction." The Merck Veterninary Manual 2011. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.

Verdon, Daniel R. "Heartworm disease diagnosed in every U.S. state, survey reports." DVM Newsmagazine July 2011: 1S. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Mar. 2013.

"What is Heartworm Disease?." American Heartworm Society. Web. 16 Mar. 2013.
Natural History
Offspring can be detected in the blood about 6 to 7 months after it leaves the mosquito into a dog.
Male Heartworms - four to six inches
Female Heartworms- 10 to 12 inches
Treatment (continued)
Immiticide:
more effective than Caparsolate,
~given in an intramuscular injection once
a day for two days
~Both treatments are hard on the dogs, especially if they have heart or lung problems or are old
~For dogs too sick for the usual treatments, surgery is performed
~Veterinarian makes an incision in the jugular vein in the neck, and the vein is opened and the worms are pulled out. This requires x-ray equipment.
• Once the mosquito bites the host, the larval heartworms grow for 2 weeks in the skin under the mosquito bite
• Then, they migrate to the muscles of the chest & the abdomen
• Then, they enter the bloodstream & carried throughout the heart
• After about 7 months after the host was bitten, the females begin having live young
- these larvae live inside the host & infect it
Radiographs (X-rays):

A radiograph of a dog with heartworms will usually show heart enlargement and swelling of the large artery leading to the lungs from the heart.
Full transcript