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Transcript of Reproduction System
Though the anatomical parts differ in males and females, the reproductive systems of both sexes have the same types of organs: gonads (sex glands); ducts (tubes) to carry the sex cells and secretions; and accessory organs. Sperm Path: From Production to Ejaculation THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000121.htm THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM How An Ovum is Released From An Ovary:
The 28 Day Menstrual Cycle - Innermost glandular layer of the uterus
- Functions as a lining, preventing adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium, thereby maintaining the patency of the uterine cavity
- During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer
-Representing an optimal environment for the
implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the
- Echogenic (detectable using ultrasound scanners)
- Average thickness of 6.7mm.
- During pregnancy, the glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number -
- Vascular spaces fuse and become interconnected, forming the placenta, which supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo and fetus THE ENDOMETRIUM Six Diseases of the Reproductive System 1) Endometriosis - the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. This can cause the woman to be sterile if the tissue blocks the fallopian tubes. Symptoms include painful periods, pain in the lower abdomen before and during menstruation, and pelvic pain. Treatments include hormonal therapy, pain medications, and surgical removal of affected organs.
2)Herpes - Sexually transmitted viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus type II. Symptoms include a burning sensation, fluid-filled vesicles, and painful urination. There is no cure for herpes and treatment is only offered to ease pain and promote healing. 3) Syphilis - Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by a bacterium. It can cause long-term complications and/or death if not adequately treated. Symptoms come in stages. The primary stage includes sores on various parts of the male or female genitals and can heal within several weeks. If the sore is not treated, the bacterium can enter the bloodstream and cause fevers, sore throats, and swollen glands, including a non-itching rash. The STD can cause deafness, cardiovascular disease, paralysis, and many more illnesses and disabilities.
4) Public Lice (Crabs)- parasites transmitted sexually, but can be spread by clothing, bed linens, or other items that can contain lice. Symptoms include extreme itching in the pubic area. There are medications that can kill the lice and it is important to wash all clothing and bed linens to destroy lice or nits (eggs). 5) Prostate Cancer - cancer that starts in the prostate gland. Symptoms usually start at late stage which include delayed or slowed start of urinary stream, slow urinary stream, blood in the urine or semen, and bone pain in the lower back and pelvic bones. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.
6) Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) - symptoms occur three to fourteen days before a woman menstruates. Real cause is unknown, but it may be caused to a hormonal imbalance, poor nutrition, or stress. Symptoms include, but are not limited to, nervousness, cramping in the pelvic area, moodiness, headache, depression, back pain, bloating, and temporary weight gain. Six Diseases of the Reproductive System Six Diseases of the Reproductive System Stages of the Menstrual Cycle DEFINITIONS *A women menstruation is a woman's monthly bleeding, also named "menses," "menstrual period," and "period"
*A woman's menstrual is made up of blood and tissue from inside the woman's uterus, flowing from the uterus through the opening of the cervix and out through the vagina
*Menstruation helps the female body prepare for pregnancy every month
*Begins the first day of bleeding and finishes the day before next period
*Average cycle is 28 days long, can range from 21-35 days or more
-Most last 1 to 8, with the average being 4-5
The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which are produced by the pituitary gland, also estrogen and progesterone hormones, which are produced by the ovaries. *Follicular Phase -
During the first half of this phase, the follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) level increases slightly.
Each follicle contains an egg.
Later levels decrease, only one contains to develop and produces estrogen.
*Ovulatory Phase -
Begins the surge in the luteinizing hormone (LH) and FSH levels.
LH stimulates egg release (ovulation), which usually occurs between 16 to 32 hours.
The estrogen level peaks during the surge, and the progesterone level starts to increase.
*Luteal Phase -
During the luteal phase, levels of the LH and FSH decrease.
The ruptured follicle closes after releasing the egg and forms a corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.
Later in this phase, the estrogen level increases.
Progesterone and estrogen cause the lining of the uterus to thicken more.
If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates and no longer produces progesterone; the estrogen level decreases; the lining degenerates and is shed, and a new menstrual cycle begins. The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions:
*To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
*To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex
*To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The female reproductive system does many things, such as:
*Produces the female egg cells (ova) necessary for reproduction
*Transports the ova to the site of fertilization (fallopian tubes)
*Implants fertilized egg into the walls of the uterus (beginning pregnancy)
-If fertilization does not take place, menstruation occurs
*Produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle Menstruation Breasts- Mammary glands, contain lobes separated into sections by connective and fatty tissue.
Ejacualtory Ducts - Are two short tubes formed by the union of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles.
Endometrium - The inner layer of the uterus. provides for implantation of the fertilization epithelium provides for implantation of a fertilized ovum and sids in the development of the fetus.
Epididymis - Is a tightly coiled tube approximately 20 feet in length and located in the scrotum and above the testes
Fallopian Tubes - Are two tubes, each approximately five inches in length and attached to the upper part of the uterus.
Fertilization- The union of the ovum and a sperm to create a new life, usually take place in the fallopian tubes. Quiz Time! 1) Name two (2) abnormal conditions of the reproductive system.
2) How often does ovulation occur?
3) Where is sperm produced?
4) What is the function of the reproductive system?
5)Name two (2) parts of the female reproductive system. Answers! 1) Endometriosis, Herpes, Syphilis, Pubic Lice, Prostate Cancer, or PMS
2) Every 28 days
4) To create new life
5) See slide 10 Ovaries - Are the female gonads. They are small, almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity and attached to the uterus by ligaments.
Penis - Is the external male reproductive organ and is located in front of the scrotum.
Perineum - Is defined as the area between the vagina and anus in the female.
Prostate Gland - is a doughnut-shaped gland located below the urinary bladder and on either side of the urethra.
Reproductive System - is the function to produce new life. DEFINITIONS (Cont.) DEFINITIONS (Slide 3) Scrotum - The sac suspended between the male’s thighs
Seminal Vesicles - Are two small pouch-like tubes located behind the bladder and near the junction of the vas deferens
and the ejaculatory ducts.
Testes - The male gonads
Urethra - Is the tube that extends from the urinary bladder
Uterus- Is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum.
Vagina- is a muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the outside of the body.
Vas Deferens - also called the ductus deferens, receives the sperm and fluid from the epididymis.
Vestibule- the area of the vulva located inside the labia minora WARNING! The following pictures are somewhat disturbing. We tried to be nice when choosing pictures.