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Seven Wonders of The World
Transcript of Seven Wonders of The World
The Great Pyramid is a true masterpiece and has rightly earned the title of a “Wonder”. It was built with such precision that our current technology cannot replicate it. There are many interesting facts about this Pyramid that it even baffles archaeologists, scientists, astronomers and tourists. Here are some facts:
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
1. Artemis was an Olympian God, the daughter of Zeus and Leto. She was the goddess of the moon, and the goddess of the hunt. She was also the twin sister of Apollo.
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was created by a sculptor named Phidias. It took him about 12 years, from 430 to 422 BC, to complete the statue. Zeus was considered the king of the Greek gods and this magnificent statue was created to honor him. It was placed in the Temple at Olympia, a shrine to Zeus where Olympic Games took place every four years. Here are some facts:
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was built by Artemisia after her husband Mausolus died. Mausolus and Artemisia had ruled over Halicarnassus and the region surrounding it for 24 years. When Mausolus died in 353 BC, Artemisia was reported to have been so broken-hearted she hired the most talented artists to create the most magnificent tomb in the world. The finished tomb was 147 feet tall and sat on a hill overlooking Halicarnassus.
The Seven Wonders of The Ancient World
1. The four faces of the pyramid are slightly concave. It is the only pyramid to have been built this way.
2. The pyramid is estimated to have around 2,300,000 stone blocks that weigh from 2 to 30 tons each and there are even some blocks that weigh over 50 tons.
3.The mortar used is of an unknown origin. It has been analyzed and its chemical composition is known but it can’t be reproduced. It is stronger than the stone's that make up the pyramid and is still holding it up today.
4. It was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu to serve as his tomb when he dies.
1. Fortresses and temples in the gardens contain large statues of solid gold.
2. The Hanging Gardens did not actually hang at all. They were made up of a simulated mountain with rooftop gardens. They would have likely been multi-level terraces supported by baked brick columns. These columns would have been filled with dirt to allow large plantings and trees to root and grow.
3. The Hanging Gardens where built by a Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar II, in 600BC for his wife Armytis.
Sadly, The Hanging Gardens are not standing today. They would have evoked a romantic picture of lush greenery and colorful flowers cascading from the sky. It would have been spectacular sight to behold. Anyways, here are some facts:
4. Traditionally they were said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was built to honor Artemis/Diana, one of three maiden goddesses of Olympus. This temple is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was built in Ephesus (an ancient city), which today would be near Selcuk, Turkey. It had to be rebuilt at least three times due to fire, flood and a mob that was determined to destroy it. Each time it was rebuilt it became larger and even more beautiful and impressive. Here are some facts about the Goddess and her Temple:
2. The Antipater of Sidon, who originally made the list of the Seven Wonders of the World, described the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus as being more marvelous than any of the other six wonders.
3. The first temple was destroyed in the 7th century. Reconstruction began in 550 BC. It took about 10 years to rebuild it. Some historians say it was destroyed due to a flood. Others believe it was due to war.
4. The second time the temple was destroyed it was burned to the ground by Herostratus. He set the fire to make himself famous. It backfired because anyone who spoke his name was then sentenced to death.
1. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was about 42 feet tall meaning that if Zeus stood up, his head would go through the roof.
3. A visitor to the Statue of Zeus in 97 A.D., Dio Crysostomos described the statue as being made of gold, ebony, ivory and precious stones. He also said that there were images of animals (such as the half lion/half man sphinx) and Greek gods carved into the chair. In Zeus' right hand was a figure of the goddess of victory Nike. In his left hand he held a scepter topped with an eagle.
2. The sculptor Phidias had previously created a similar sized statue of the goddess Athena. The sculpture of Athena was made for the Parthenon in Athens.
4. Since the frame of the statue was made of wood. The statue required special care because Olympia was a very damp place and humidity could damage the statue. Olive oil was applied to the statue regularly to keep the wood from deteriorating.
1. Mausolus' wife Artemisia was also his sister. It was common in those days for rulers to marry their sisters.
2. The word mausoleum originates from the name Mausolus. The term mausoleum became the name used for tombs built above ground from that time on.
3. At the top of the tomb there was a sculpture. The carving depicted Mausolus and Artemisia in a chariot being pulled by four massive horses. There were also scenes of Greek and Amazon warriors (group of women) and their battles in scriptural relief (very similar to the images in coins - slightly raised) on the walls of the mausoleum
4. In the 1800s an archaeologist names Charles Newton discovered the remnants of the mausoleum. He found the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia and a piece of the wheel of the chariot. They can be seen at the Mausoleum Room in the British Museum.
Colossus of Rhodes
The Colossus of Rhodes is a statue that was built on the Greek island of Rhodes between 292 and 280 BC. The statue was a depiction of the Greek Titan Helios and was meant to celebrate their victory over the ruler of Cyprus in 305 BC. At 98.4 feet high, the Colossus of Rhodes was one of the tallest statues of the ancient world. It only stood for 56 years until it was destroyed by an earthquake in 226 BC. Here are some facts:
1. The Statue of Liberty has been referred to as the ‘Modern Colossus'. The Colossus of Rhodes was approximately 98.4 feet tall and Statue of Liberty stands at 111 feet, 6 inches, from her heel to the top her head.
2. Both the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Liberty were built as symbols to freedom.
3. The Colossus of Rhodes was destroyed in an earthquake in 226 BC, but pieces of the statue lay where it fell for centuries afterwards.
4. Ptolemy III, the king of Egypt offered to pay for the Colossus' reconstruction. The Rhodians refused. They believed that Helios himself was angered by the statue and caused the earthquake that destroyed it.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was the first lighthouse in the world. Construction began in 290 BC and took twenty years to complete. When it was done it was the tallest building in the world at the time, except for the Great Pyramid. It was built on the island of Pharos, to help guide trade ships into its busy harbor at Alexandria, Egypt. The lighthouse was damaged by several earthquakes and eventually became an abandoned ruin. Here are some more facts:
Lighthouse of Alexandria
1. The city Alexandria was named by Alexander the Great. It was one of 17 cities that he named after himself, but Alexandria was one of the few to survive. It is still a prosperous city today.
2. The lowest level of the lighthouse was 100 feet square and 240 feet high. The second level had eight sides and was about 115 feet tall. The third level was a 60 foot high cylinder that had an opening at the top to allow a space where the fire burned to light the way for sailors in the night. On top of this was a statue in honor of Poseidon, the god of the sea.
I think the wonders of the (ancient) world are interesting. Sadly, only The Great Pyramid of Giza is standing. Which sucks, but at least there is still one wonder. Even though almost all of them are destroyed, they are still part of the world's history. I have provided a few facts for each of the wonders. So sit back and enjoy!
3. In today's money it would have cost about three million dollars to build the Lighthouse of Alexandria. In 290 BC it cost 800 talents (the form of money in this time).
4. It was reported that there was a large mirror inside, possibly made of polished bronze. The purpose of the mirror was to project a beam of light from the reflection of the fire.
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Also my favorite is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.