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Updates on Ozone Depletion
Transcript of Updates on Ozone Depletion
Made up of three oxygen atoms bonded together.
There are 5 layers of atmosphere: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere (Space).
Ozone is found in the stratosphere layer What is Ozone? Ozone Depletion Purpose of Ozone Layer Causes of ozone depletion Consequences of Ozone Depletion What can we do to stop it? Impact on Humans Protects life forms from harmful UV rays from the Sun.
Reduces the heating ability of the sun's rays that strike the earth. It refers to the decrease in the amount of ozone in the Stratosphere.
In 2006, the largest ozone hole was discovered over the Antarctic. It was the size of USA. GROUP 5 1979 1989 2006 2010 Low High Adapted from: Earth Observatory The main cause is the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) that are released into the atmosphere.
Other gases such as nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, chlorine and bromine.
Natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions. Why is there a ozone hole ONLY in the Polar Regions? Polar stratospheric clouds More Info about CFCs and HBFCs CFCs are an organic compound made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon.
HBFCs are an organic compound made up of hydrogen, bromine, fluorine and carbon.
CFCs and HBFCs are found in refrigerants and coolants used in domestic and industrial cooling equipments and also fire extinguishers. Temperature of Different Atmosphere Adapted from: The Ozone Hole With no control in CFCs production, ozone levels worldwide would drop to dangerously low levels and cover the entire Earth. In the Year of 2064... Minimise high altitude aircraft/rockets flights.
Encourage growth of plants that produce oxygen, discourage deforestation.
Eliminate production and release of known ozone depleting chemicals (such as CFCs). Ensure technicians recycle the old CFCs in refrigerator or air-conditioners so they are not released into the atmosphere.
Suggest school activities to increase awareness of the problem and to initiate local action. Individual effort Immunity Suppression
Cataracts - eye disease
New changes in DNA Impact on Plants & Animals Decreased rate of growth in phytoplankton, thereby affecting the marine food chain.
Damages the DNA of marine bacteria and the larvae of starfish and urchins.
Increases fragility, limits growth and causes yield reduction in crops. The Polar Regions are home to a special type of cloud known as Polar Stratospheric Clouds. These clouds form during winter and are made up of ice particles, which give them iridescence similar to pearls. The ice particles in the clouds provide a surface for the CFCs & HBFCs to undergo chemical reaction that releases free chlorine atoms. During summer when the Sun rays hit the clouds, the chlorine will react with ozone in the stratosphere and cause depletion. This explains why the ozone hole appears bigger only during summer in the Southern hemisphere. Thus the ingredients for an ozone hole are as below:
CFCs & HBFCs, polar stratospheric clouds, sunshine The Antarctic ozone hole, which first appeared in the early 1980s and peaked in the 2000s, is expected to shrink significantly by 2064. International efforts successfully avoided the threat posed by CFCs and other ozone-destroying chemicals. International efforts Since 1996, Singapore banned import of CFCs and HBFCs.
Quota allocation system for CFCs is in place since 1989.
Prohibition for import and manufacture of non-pharmaceutical aerosol products and polystyrene products.
Cap in the consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) National efforts The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international environmental agreement that sets targets in reduction of CFCs productions. It includes trade sanctions and offers major incentives for non-signatory nations to sign the agreement.
Developed countries have phased out Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the end of 1995. A total phase out by all countries has been achieved by 2010. World Avioded Reference Future Quiz Time... a. CFCs and HBFCs
b. Greenhouse gases like nitric oxide
c. Polar Stratospheric clouds
d. UV rays One of these is not a cause of ozone depletion. What is it? d. UV rays ANSWER a. Use more CFCs and HBFCs products
b. Don't drive a car unless absolutely neccessary
c.Use more styrofoam products
d. Throw away old CFC and HBFC products What is the correct idividual effort that one can put in to help reduce ozone depletion? (may not be in presentation) b. Don't drive a car unless absolutely neccessary ANSWER Which of the graphs shows changes that is most likely to occur? a. b. c. d. FINAL ANSWER... d. Based on predictions by scientists, ozone depletion will decrease in the future...hopefully. Thank You!!