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Chapter 4: Unit & Lesson Planning
Transcript of Chapter 4: Unit & Lesson Planning
& Sammie Jones
Unit & Lesson Planning
Teacher As A Decision Maker
1. Instructional goals
2. Learner needs
3. Subject-matter content
4. Teaching methods
1. Practical experiences
2. Reading case studies
3. Reading professional literature
4. Reading empirical studies
& Tacit Knowledge
Representing what works,
as discovered over time
& through experience.
Teaching that is inspired by the tacit or personal
knowledge gained from day-to-day experiences.
- The concept of hierarchy tells
us the relationship of the parts to the whole.
- The concept of task-relevant prior knowledge tells us what must come before what in a sequence of events.
Disciplinary & Interdisciplinary Unit Planning
A method of developing units in a discipline by arranging the content to be taught hierarchically or in steps & in an order that ensures that all task-relevant prior knowledge required for subsequent lessons has been taught in previous lessons.
Planning units that integrate knowledge
across disciplines or content areas
to convey relationships, patterns
- A unit of instruction may be thought of as a system.
Planning lessons to be part of the larger system of interrelate learning, or the unit.
Making Planning Decisions
Grade, department, or
school district specifications
about what content must be covered in what period of time.
1. Vertical Unit Planning:
- Lines & arrows indicate sequences among lessons & how outcomes of lessons build on one another to
achieve a goal.
1. Classifying unit outcomes on a higher level than lesson outcomes in the taxonomies of behavior.
2. Planning the instructional sequence so the outcomes of previously taught lessons are instrumental in achieving the outcomes of subsequent lessons.
3. Rearranging or adding lesson content to provide task-relevant prior knowledge where needed.
3 Activities of
Vertical Unit Planning:
Units can be planned
2. Lateral Unit Planning:
3 Activities of
planning, a central theme
- Lines or arrows are content
- Subordinate ideas flow outward
1. Identifying an interdisciplinary theme
2. Integrating bodies of knowledge across multiple disciplines
3. Identifying relationships & patterns
that bind different aspect of our
A laterally planned unit of study
in which topics are integrated to
focus on a specific theme.
A variety of activities & materials focused in several related content areas & taught using different instructional strategies.
Relating content & material from various
Integrated Thematic Teaching:
In vertical planning,
boxes illustrate areas
of content, or instructional
objectives, at various levels of generality.
There are 2
Preliminary Issues to
Consider Before Writing a
- One of the most difficult tasks of creating a lesson plan, is determining the levels of learning you want the lesson to contain.
- There is a hierarchy of comprehension levels (Bloom’s Taxonomy) that teacher’s utilize when creating a lesson plan.
- Lessons create correlated relationships among
other lessons in a unit to successfully
teach necessary materials.
1. Determining Where to Start
2. Providing for Learner Diversity
Where to Start:
- Before writing a lesson plan, you must take into
consideration the differentiated instructional strategies you
will you use throughout the lesson.
- Each lesson will have an entry-level position & there will
always be students that are above that position &
students that will be below it.
- Most of your instruction will be directed at
the level of the average learners
in your class.
2. Providing for Learner Diversity:
- Task-ability grouping
- Learning centers
- Review & follow-up materials
- Interactive computer-based activities
- Living curriculum: Internet
Instructional Methods to Consider Using
in Your Lesson Plan:
Events of Instruction
- There is a relationship between what you teach & what students are thinking during instruction.
- You need to ask yourself questions regarding what you want out of your lesson.
1. Gaining attention
2. Informing learners of the objective
3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
4. Presenting the content
5. Eliciting the desired behavior
6. Providing feedback
7. Assessing the lesson outcome
Events to Formulate
an Effective Lesson Plan:
1. Gaining Attention: Read to students examples of short descriptive, narrative &
expository paragraphs from Sunday’s newspaper.
2. Informing the Learner of the Objective: Students will be able to discriminate among
descriptive, narrative & expository paragraphs from a list of written examples in popular press.
3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learning: Review the meanings of the words description, narration & exposition as they are used in everyday language.
4. Presenting the Content: Using a headline from Sunday’s newspaper give students examples of
how the story could be reported using description, narration & exposition.
5. Eliciting the Desired Behavior: Take another front-page story from Sunday’s newspaper &
ask each student to write a paragraph relating the story in descriptive, narrative or
expository form, whichever he or she prefers.
6. Providing Feedback: Call on individuals to read their paragraphs aloud check each
paragraph against criteria for the type the student intended to write.
7. Assessing the Lesson Outcome: Provide multiple-choice questions
about each form of writing on the unit test. Have students
revise their paragraphs as needed & turn them in
as homework the following day.
Unit Title: Writing Concepts & Skills
Lesson Title: Descriptive, Narrative
& Expository Paragraphs – Lesson 1.3
Unit Title: Consumer Mathematics
Lesson Title: Operations & Properties of
Ratio, Proportion & Percentage – Lesson 3.3
1. Gaining Attention: Display the following so all students can see: (a) can of diet soft drink,
(b) 1-pound package of spaghetti, (c) box of breakfast cereal.
2. Informing the Learner of the Objective: Learners will be expected to know how to determine ratios, proportions & percentages from the information on labels of popular food products.
3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learning: Review the definitions of ratio, proportion & percentage from the math workbook.
4. Presenting the Content: Write the information from the soft drink label on a transparency & ask students to identify the percentage of sodium.
5. Eliciting the Desired Behavior: Write in the board the list of ingredients given on the cereal box; ask students to determine: (1) the percentage of daily allowance of protein, (2) the proportion of daily allowance of vitamin A, & (3) the ration of protein to carbohydrates.
6. Providing Feedback: Using the information on the board, point to the correct answer for
behaviors 1 & 2, & show how to find the appropriate numerator & denominator for
behavior 3 (in step 5) from the ingredients on the label.
7. Assessing the Lesson Outcome: Provide on the weekly quiz five
problems that cover ratios (two problems), proportions
(two problems) & percentages (one problem) using
labels from other consumer products.
The 4 Primary Inputs
to the Planning Process
Are Knowledge Of:
4 Sources You
Can Obtain Info
About The 4 Inputs: