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Public Facilities in India

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Zohaib Mohammed

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Public Facilities in India

Water Supply
INDIA:
India is a diverse country with 18 official languages and about 2000 different dialects. It is the seventh-largest country by area and is the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people.
But all those people need their basic amenities provided to them.

The Government of India is responsible for providing the people
with their basic needs.
India's Electricity Sector
One of the amenities ,the government provides to its people, is electricity.

Whenever we plug in our iPad ,see television ,or just read e-books we use electricity .

But in India,electricity is a billion dollar industry.

But where does all that power come from ,well, stay on and find out.
Introduction
The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 228.722 GW as of September 2013, the world's fifth largest. Captive power plants generate an additional 34.444 GW. Non Renewable Power Plants constitute 87.55% of the installed capacity, and Renewable Power Plants constitute the remaining 12.45% of total installed Capacity. India generated 855 BU (855 000 MU i.e. 855 TWh) electricity during 2011–12 fiscal.

In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 57% of India's installed electricity capacity, compared to South Africa's 92%; China's 77%; and Australia's 76%. After coal, renewal hydropower accounts for 19%, renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for about 9%.

HISTORY
The first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta was conducted on 24 July 1879 by P W Fleury & Co. On 7 January 1897, Kilburn & Co secured the Calcutta electric lighting licence as agents of the Indian Electric Co, which was registered in London on 15 January 1897. A month later, the company was renamed the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation. The control of the company was transferred from London to Calcutta only in 1970. Enthused by the success of electricity in Calcutta, power was thereafter introduced in Bombay. Mumbai saw electric lighting demonstration for the first time in 1882 at Crawford Market, and Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company (B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricity for the tramway. The first hydroelectric installation in India was installed near a tea estate at Sidrapong for the Darjeeling Municipality in 1897. The first electric train ran between Bombay's Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour Line, in 1925. In 1931, electrification of the metre gauge track between Madras Beach and Tambaram was started.
Recent Catastrophes
In December 2011, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to electricity. Over one third of India's rural population lacked electricity, as did 6% of the urban population. Of those who did have access to electricity in India, the supply was intermittent and unreliable. In 2010, blackouts and power shedding interrupted irrigation and manufacturing across the country. States such as Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and others provides continuous power supply.
Where does all this power come from?
Power development in India was first started in 1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioning of a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902.

India's electricity generation capacity additions from 1950 to 1985 were very low when compared to developed nations. Since 1990, India has been one of the fastest growing markets for new electricity generation capacity.

State-owned and privately owned companies are significant players in India's electricity sector, with the private sector growing at a faster rate. India's central government and state governments jointly regulate electricity sector in India.

As of August 2011, the states and union territories of India with power surplus were Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Tripura, Gujarat, Delhi and Dadra and Nagar Haveli

In India, power is generated by:

i)Thermal power
ii)Hydro-power
iii)Nuclear power
Problem
India's electricity sector faces many issues. Some are
i)Government giveaways such as free electricity for farmers, partly to curry political favour, have depleted the cash reserves of state-run electricity-distribution system. This has financially crippled the distribution network, and its ability to pay for power to meet the demand. This situation has been worsened by government departments of India that do not pay their bills.

ii)Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isn't producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of operations. India's monopoly coal producer, state-controlled Coal India, is constrained by primitive mining techniques and is rife with theft and corruption; Coal India has consistently missed production targets and growth targets. Poor coal transport infrastructure has worsened these problems. To expand its coal production capacity, Coal India needs to mine new deposits. However, most of India's coal lies under protected forests or designated tribal lands. Any mining activity or land acquisition for infrastructure in these coal-rich areas of India, has been rife with political demonstrations, social activism and public interest litigations.

iii)Poor pipeline connectivity and infrastructure to harness India's abundant coal bed methane and shale gas potential.

iv)The giant new offshore natural gas field has delivered less fuel than projected. India faces a shortage of natural gas.

v)Hydroelectric power projects in India's mountainous north and northeast regions have been slowed down by ecological, environmental and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with public interest litigations.

vi)India's nuclear power generation potential has been stymied by political activism since the Fukushima disaster in Japan.

vii)Average transmission, distribution and consumer-level losses exceeding 30% which includes auxiliary power consumption of thermal power stations, etc.

viii)Over 30 crore (300 million) people in India have no access to electricity. Of those who do, almost all find electricity supply intermittent and unreliable.

ix)Lack of clean and reliable energy sources such as electricity is, in part, causing about 80 crore (800 million) people in India to continue using traditional biomass energy sources – namely fuelwood, agricultural waste and livestock dung – for cooking and other domestic needs.[23] Traditional fuel combustion is the primary source of indoor air pollution in India, causes between 300,000 to 400,000 deaths per year and other chronic health issues.

x)India’s coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential for greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union (EU-27) countries, India’s thermal power plants emit 50% to 120% more CO2 per kWh produced.

Electricity in Rural Areas
India's Ministry of Power launched Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana as one of its flagship programme in March 2005 with the objective of electrifying over one lakh (100,000) un-electrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 2.34 crore (23.4 million) rural households. This free electricity programme promises energy access to India's rural areas, but is in part creating problems for India's electricity sector.
Resource Potential
According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2011, world's 26th largest. United States Energy Information Administration estimates that India produced approximately 1.8 Tcf of natural gas in 2010, while consuming roughly 2.3 Tcf of natural gas. The electrical power and fertiliser sectors account for nearly three-quarters of natural gas consumption in India. Natural gas is expected to be an increasingly important component of energy consumption as the country pursues energy resource diversification and overall energy security.

Until 2008, the majority of India's natural gas production came from the Mumbai High complex in the northwest part of the country. Recent discoveries in the Bay of Bengal have shifted the centre of gravity of Indian natural gas production.

The country already produces some coalbed methane and has major potential to expand this source of cleaner fuel. According to a 2011 Oil and Gas Journal report, India is estimated to have between 600 to 2000 Tcf of shale gas resources (one of the world’s largest). Despite its natural resource potential, and an opportunity to create energy industry jobs, India has yet to hold a licensing round for its shale gas blocks. It is not even mentioned in India's central government energy infrastructure or electricity generation plan documents through 2025. The traditional natural gas reserves too have been very slow to develop in India because regulatory burdens and bureaucratic red tape severely limit the country’s ability to harness its natural gas resources.

Another public facility provided by the Goverment of India to its its people is Water.
We use water every now and and then but is water equally accessible to everyone in country? Is it clean ? Is drinking it safe? These are a few questions the rural society can't afford to ask.

Access To Water
In 2008, 88% of the population in India had access to an improved water source, but only 31% had access to improved sanitation. In rural areas, where 72% of India’s population lives, the respective shares are 84% for water and only 21% for sanitation. In urban areas, 96% had access to an improved water source and 54% to improved sanitation. Access has improved substantially since 1990 when it was estimated to stand at 72% for water and 18% for sanitation
Introduction
Drinking water supply in India continues to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage. The level of investment in water, albeit low by international standards, has increased during the 2000s. Access has also increased significantly. A number of innovative approaches to improve water supply and sanitation have been tested in India.
According to Indian norms, access to improved water supply exists if at least 40 liters/capita/day of safe drinking water are provided within a distance of 1.6 km or 100 meter of elevation difference, to be relaxed as per field conditions. There should be at least one pump per 250 persons.
Water Resources
Depleting ground water table and deteriorating ground water quality are threatening the sustainability of both urban and rural water supply in many parts of India. The supply of cities that depend on surface water is threatened by pollution, increasing water scarcity and conflicts among users.
Responsibility
Water supply is a State responsibility under the Indian Constitution. States may give the responsibility to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) in rural areas or municipalities in urban areas, called Urban Local Bodies (ULB). At present, states generally plan, design and execute water supply schemes (and often operate them) through their State Departments (of Public Health Engineering or Rural Development Engineering) or State Water Boards.
Service Provision
Urban Areas:
Institutional arrangements for water supply in Indian cities vary greatly. Typically, a state-level agency is in charge of planning and investment, while the local government (Urban Local Bodies) is in charge of operation and maintenance. Some of the largest cities have created municipal water and sanitation utilities that are legally and financially separated from the local government.
Rural Areas:
There are about a 100,000 rural water supply systems in India. At least in some states, responsibility for service provision is in the process of being partially transferred from State Water Boards and district governments to Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) at the block or village level
Efficiency and Utilities
Non-Revenue Water:
According to the results of a Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) Program carried out by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) in 2006 in 28 cities, the average level of non-revenue water (NRW) was 44 percent. Another study of 20 cities by the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission with the support of the Asian Development Bank showed an average level of non-revenue water (NRW) of 32%. However, 5 out of the 20 cities did not provide any data. For those that provided data there probably is a large margin of error, since only 25% of connections are metered, which makes it very difficult to estimate non-revenue water.
Labour Productivity:
Labour productivity. Concerning labour productivity, the 20 utilities in the sample had on average 7.4 employees per 1,000 connections, which is much higher than the estimated level for an efficient utility. A survey of a larger sample of Indian utilities showed an average ratio of 10.9 employees per 1,000 connections.
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