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The American Civil War

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Damian Gates

on 26 April 2016

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Transcript of The American Civil War

War Begins
The American Civil War
Major Union Generals
The South
The North
Commander of the Northern Army of Virginia
President of the CSA
Notable Leaders
Abraham Lincoln
President of the U.S.
Robert E. Lee
Jefferson Davis
Thomas J."Stonewall" Jackson
The United States of America
The Union
The North
The Federals
The Yankees
The Confederate States of America
The Confederacy
The South
The Confederates
The Rebels
Instead of holding back, we should be aggressive and enter their territory. - Gideon Welles
Strategic Goal
Military Objectives
“What do you want to do, what do you have to do it with, and how you going to do it?”
Maintain the Union
Force the Union to accept a Political Solution –
Stronger Military
Weaker Military
Smaller Economy
Destroy the Conf. Army
Trade Space for Time
Defend D.C.
“On to Richmond”
The idea of waiting for blows, instead of inflicting them, is altogether unsuited to the genius of our people. -Richmond Examiner
“Protect Everywhere”
Ends, Means, and Ways
Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina
On April 13th the fort surrenders and the Union forces begin to withdraw. No lives are lost in the fighting.
After the first 7 southern states secede and S.C. has confiscated Federal property, Lincoln has a choice; withdraw or resupply.
If Lincoln withdraws U.S. forces he recognizes Confederacy. Rather than withdrawing the troops Lincoln chooses to resupply the fort.
Confederate batteries bombard the fort for 34 hours beginning on April 12th, 1861.
After the attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for an army of 75,000
4 more states secede, including VA
The Confederate capital is moved from Montgomery, AL to Richmond VA
Leader of the Union
Winfield Scott
“Old fuss & feathers”
General-in-Chief of the Union Army
July 5, 1841 – November 1, 1861
George McClellan
General-in-Chief of the Union Army
November 1861 to March 1862
Ambrose Burnside
Commander the Army of the Potomac
Nov. 1862 to Jan. 1863
George Meade
Commander the Army of the Potomac
June 1863 to June 1865
Joe Hooker
Commander Army of the Potomac
Jan. 1863- June 1863
Ulysses S. Grant
Became commander of all of the Union Armies,
most successful Union general
of American Civil War.
William T. Sherman
General 1861-1865
Known for
"Sherman's March to the Sea"
Joshua Chamberlin
Defender of Little Round Top
, at Gettysburg, Medal of Honor recipient, promoted to Brigadier General.
Three days after being appointed he meets Lee's Army at Gettysburg.
Known as “Billy Yank”
The Soldiers
Leader of the Confederacy
James Longstreet
George Pickett
J.E.B. Stuart
Must use alternative strategies
Confederate Soldiers
"Johnny Reb"
One of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee, &
one of the most gifted tactical commanders
in U.S. history
One of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the
principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee
, who called him his
"Old War Horse".
Confederate general
best remembered for
his participation in the futile & bloody assault at the Battle of Gettysburg that bears his name,
Pickett's Charge
Cavalier cavalry commander known for his
mastery of reconnaissance
and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. He was
Lee's eyes and ears
Battles of the War
1st Manassas/1st Battle of Bull Run
July 21
Sept. 17
1st Official Battle of the American Civil War.
Union forces have a troop advantage over the South (Union 30K, South 20K)
People from Washington and the surrounding areas came out to picnic and watch the battle.
Union uses mostly militia or unseasoned troops.
Confederate Gen. Jackson earns his nickname, “Stonewall”.
“…And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the Rebel Yell.

US forces crumbles and retreats in a panic. The North was shocked at the unexpected defeat.
The war is going to be much longer and bloodier than either side anticipated.
Is the bloodiest day of the Civil War with more than 23,000 lives lost from both sides.
Union forces find a copy of Gen. Lee's plans.
Union Gen. McClellan moves to intercept Lee’s army near Sharpsburg, Maryland.
Despite having superior numbers, Gen McClellan is cautious and moves slowly.
McClellan’s hesitation allows Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson and his brigade to join Lee’s army and a savage battle takes place.
Union Gen. Burnside's corps captures a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and advance against the Confederates.
Before the Southern lines collapse Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill's division arrives and launches a counterattack, driving back Burnside and ending the battle.
Union has stopped Lee’s invasion of the North (for now).
Tactically, the battle was a draw, but the result was a Southern retreat.
The perceived Northern victory provides the opportunity for Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
The Minie Ball
Weaponry of the Civil War
Allows for rifles to be loaded quickly.
Increased accuracy and range of shot
Effective—smashed bone.
Attached to front of a rifle.
Used for close combat
Gatling Gun
Early rapid-fire weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
Artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile.
Early Grenades
Sabers and Swords
The proclamation had enormous symbolic meaning because for the first time it made slavery itself one of the primary issues of the war.
Lincoln feared European recognition of the southern rebellion as legitimate.
The aim was to cause disruption behind Confederate lines, inspiring slaves to desert their masters and join the Union cause.
Lincoln freed slaves in rebelling Confederate states ONLY.
Slaves in the border states within the Union remained the property of their owners.
Lincoln kept Maryland and Missouri fighting for the North by exempting them from the proclamation.
An order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It proclaimed all those enslaved in Confederate territory to be forever free.
He waited for a Union victory and issued the proclamation just after the Union army’s success at Antietam.
This ideological precedent led to more than 180,000 black men to enlist in the Union army.
With the proclamation’s establishment of slavery as the primary issue of the war, European intervention on the South’s behalf would, in effect, be a vote for slavery.
Northern Strategy

To bring the Southern states back in to the Union.
Blockade coastline – cut off southern supplies.
Control the Mississippi River & split the Confederacy in half.

“Squeeze” the Confederacy into surrender.
Known as the “Anaconda Plan”

To be left alone as Confederacy / maintain their way of life (including slavery)
Southern Strategy
Make the Union hate war that they’ll accept splitting from the Confederacy.
They felt they didn’t need to win—just not be defeated.
Civil War Surgery
Amputations were common.(3/4th of all surgery were amputations).
Patients were anesthetized (chloroform).
A surgeon could remove a limb in 10 minutes.
About 75% of amputees survived.
shrewd tactician
and battlefield commander, wins numerous battles against far superior Union armies.
Colonel in the U.S Army before the war.
Turns down offer to command Union troops.
Joins Confederate Army.
Former Senator from Mississippi
March 1862:
Battle of the "Monitor"& the "Merrimac"
In an attempt to reduce the North's great naval advantage, Confederate engineers converted a Union frigate, the U.S.S. Merrimac, into an iron-sided vessel and renamed it the C.S.S. Virginia. On March 9, in the first naval engagement between ironclad ships, the ironclad USS Monitor fought the Virginia to a draw, but not before the Virginia had sunk two wooden Union warships off Norfolk, Virginia.
April 1862:
The Battle of Shiloh
Near defeat for the Union. Rebs retreat, but Union is too tired to follow.
Casualties: 13,000 out of 63,000 Union
11,000 of 40,000 Reb
Side note:
This battle took place on Wilmer McLean's farm.
Soon after that battle the McLeans, seeking to avoid the war, moved to the village of Clover Hill, Virginia (the name was later changed to "Appomattox Court House" because it had just become the county seat.
Civil War Firsts
“Modern War”
Hot-air balloons to survey enemy positions.
The telegraph increased communications.
The new "science" of photography brought images of the war home to those far away from the battlefields. Americans experienced the horrors of the Civil War more fully than they had any previous war.
Prior to the Civil War, railroads in the U.S. were a new and relatively untried invention.
During the war, soldiers, material and food were routinely transported by rail
Ironclad ships
were steam-propelled warships.
The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads was the first meeting of two ironclad vessels.
The battle received worldwide attention, and it had immediate effects on navies around the world.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Dec. 13–15,
Lincoln replaced Gen. McClellan as commander of the Union Army of the Potomac with Gen. Burnside after the Battle of Antietam.
On Dec. 13, Burnside, with about a 120,000-troop army, launched an assault on the Rebel forces deployed in the hills above the town of Fredericksburg.
After two days of ferocious fighting, all Northern Army attacks had been repelled by the Southern troops, who put up a stubborn resistance.
Burnside was forced to retreat and abandon the campaign.
1,200-2,000+ killed
10,000+ wounded
600+ killed
4,200+ wounded
Clara Barton
Sarah Emma Edmonds
Jennie Hodgers
Women of the Civil War
Nurse during the war.
Founder of the American Red Cross
Irish-born immigrant
Served as a male soldier in the Union Army
Lived as a man named Albert D. J. Cashier
Fought in 40 battles, including Vicksburg
Disguised as a man named "Franklin Flint Thompson, she served as a male field nurse in the 2nd Michigan Infantry.
Served as a male field nurse
Is rumored to have served at the 1st & 2nd Battle of Bull Run, Antietam & Vicksburg
(The Draft)
April 16, 1862:
1862- State Militia
Both the North and South resorted to conscription during the Civil War
Confederate Congress passed an act requiring military service
Service for three years from all males aged eighteen to thirty-five
U.S. Congress authorizes a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers
Men drafted could provide substitutes or, avoid service by paying commutation money
This led to the great draft riot in New York City in July 1863
Drafted men between 20 and 45
1863 - National Army
But there were other men who were waiting to sign up.
The Union did not allow free blacks or runaway slaves to join army at first.
African Americans in the Civil War
Slaves from south were considered “contraband” and were allowed to do hard labor for union troops.
A slave who during the Civil War escaped to or was brought within the Union lines
Frederick Douglass & some northern abolitionists pushed for black soldiers.
First all black regiment was the Massachusetts 54th Regiment.
2 of F. Douglass’s sons enlisted.
Commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
Commissioned after the Emancipation Proclamation.
Many of the officers including Shaw were from abolitionist families
“Contraband” to Soldiers
Approx. 200,000 African-Americans fought in the Civil War (about 10% of the total military).
May 8 -July 4
Lincoln realized early in the war that control of the Mississippi was a major goal.
The Siege of Vicksburg
After a prolonged siege Grant delivered the city when the Army of Mississippi surrendered .
Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant drove the Confederate army into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
In response Lincoln proclaimed "I have found the man who can win this war."
Many soldiers spent the war in unregulated prison camps.
Secret Service
Elaborate spy networks were used by both sides to gain knowledge of army movements. Women and slaves played significant roles.
The conditions at Andersonville Prison in Georgia were especially harsh.
The South had little food to spares on prisoners
July 1-3
George Meade won the largest and most costly battle in American history fought on the farms and hillsides of southern Pennsylvania.
The Union victory ended Lee's belief that a single massive victory would defeat the Army of the Potomac.
Lee wanted to deliver a decisive blow to the Union army and defeat it in the north.
Lee believe that if he won a single massive victory in the north then the Union would seek terms for a political solution to end the war and recognize the South.
3 vicious days of fighting take place
The Union is victorious
Union casualties were 23,055
Confederate casualties are more difficult to estimate. Many believe as many as 28,000.
The two armies suffered between roughly 46,000 and 51,000 casualties
Sherman's troops left the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia, in November 1864 and marched to capture of the port of Savannah in December.
In the Spring of 1864, Lincoln called Grant to take command of all the Union armies.
The Tide Turns
Grant appointed Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to succeed him as head of the Union troops in the Western Theater.
Sherman invaded the state of Georgia and took the city of Atlanta in September 1864.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman defied standard military principles by operating deep within enemy territory without lines of supply or communication.
The campaign inflicted significant damage to the South's industry, infrastructure, and civilian property in a tactic called “scorched earth” or “total war.”
Scorched earth policy:
a military strategy, which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while moving through an area.
Sherman's Neck Ties or Sherman's Bow Ties
With this "Total War" tactic, Sherman destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological capacity to wage war.
Sherman and his armies cut a path 60 miles wide and ultimately 300 miles long.
In December of 1864 Sherman captured the port city of Savannah, leaving a trail of destruction that cut the South effectively in half.
Lee's Dilemma
The noose was tightening around Lee's neck
Lee's Army - 55,000
Grant's Army - 120,000
Does Lee Surrender and thus in essence surrender the entire South?
Does he turn to guerrilla warfare and fight on in limited engagements for as long as it takes?
The Situation
With his army surrounded, his men weak and exhausted, Lee realized there was little choice but to consider the surrender.
On April 3, 1865, Richmond, Virginia, fell to Union troops, and General Lee and his Army were forced to retreat.
The situation looked dire for Lee and the CSA
Grant pursued Lee, and a running battle ensued as each Army moved to out-flank the other.
The Decision
The Choice
Lee's Surrender...
At its conclusion, the bloodiest conflict in the nation's history neared its end.
After a series of notes between the two leaders, Grant and Lee agreed to meet on April 9, 1865, at the house of Wilmer McLean in the village of Appomattox Courthouse.
The Grant's terms were generous:
...& the South along with him.
The First engagement of the war (1st Battle of Bull Run / 1st Manassas) took place on McLean's farm.
Soon after that battle the McLeans, seeking to avoid the war, moved to the village of Clover Hill, Virginia (the name was later changed to "Appomattox Court House" because it had just become the county seat.
It can be said that the war started and ended at the residences of Wilmer McLean.
I guess some people have all the luck!
The meeting lasted approximately two hours
Lee’s army would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason and would be able to return home.
The defeated men could take home their horses and mules so that they could carry out the spring planting.
Additionally, Grant provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army.
Why did Grant do this?
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address, Saturday, March 4, 1865
The Civil War was nearing an end, & many Northerners advocated holding Southerners criminally accountable for their insurrection against the United States.
Lincoln proposed offering the South amnesty and allowing the country to move past the war in order to "bind up the nation's wounds."
Lincoln said that the U.S. had paid the price for leaving the slavery question unresolved in the beginning of its history.
Lincoln believed the war would settle this issue and that after the war it was time to rebuild the country since it would have just redefined itself through four years of deadly conflict.
John Wilkes Booth was in attendance.
Lincoln is reelected in the election of 1864
The Gettysburg Address was delivered by President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Battle of Gettysburg.
In a speech that lasted just over two minutes, Lincoln reiterated the principles of equality stated in the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union and as a struggle that would bring true equality to all of its citizens.
"...that government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from this earth."
Attack when Possible
Keep the Army & Conf. States of America Intact
Larger Economy
Control Territory
Destroy the Conf. Economy
breaking away from North
If you were lucky
The telegraph
Now information could be transmitted by wire.
This is now considered the major turning point in the war
Full transcript