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Multiverse Theory

A presentation/project on the theory of the multiverse

Owen C.

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Multiverse Theory

New York City, they say there's nowhere else like it, home to countless structures, monuments and landmarks, every one of them unique, or so we think...
Uniqueness is an idea so familiar we'd never even question it. People and objects are one of a kind. Yet, a new theory is coming into light, a picture in which nothing is
Not only would there be multiples of objects, but also people, events, and everything else.
You may wonder, where are these copies? Why haven't we seen them?
our galaxy,
and the observable universe,
There was a time when universe meant all there is, everything. It would seem impossible that there could be more than one 'everything', but if there is, the answer may lie outside of our solar system,
You'd find more. Our universe may not be alone, there may be more universes and even more being born all the time.
We might actually live in a multiverse, an expanding sea of multiplying universes.
Some universes may have conditions so extreme it would be impossible for matter as we know it to exist.
Some universes would have a planet just like ours,
...except for a few differences.
If there are an infinite amount of universes, then we should find one almost exactly like ours.
multiverse Theory
Dark Energy
String Theory
Three main factors point towards the theory...
Eternal Inflation
A force so powerful it can take an area and expand it into a universe, but this theory has a connection to the multiverse and relies on it being true.
Dark energy pushes the universe apart at an accelerating rate yet the amount measured is only
In string theory all
matter is composed of tiny vibrating strands in the shape of loops, 'strings'. Although for this to work there has to be
tiny 'extra dimensions'
that shape the string
and it's vibration.
This amount could only exist if there was a multiverse.
There was a time when we thought earth was the center of the universe and everything revolved around it.
Then people like Galileo came along and showed us that the sun is the center of our solar system and that is just a tiny part of a much larger galaxy. It seemed impossible that any of these things could be true at the time but now we never doubt it. The multiverse may be similar.
The Big Bang. About fourteen billion years ago the universe violently exploded and then cooled allowing planets and galaxies to form.
The one thing that the Big Bang Theory says nothing about is the bang itself. When scientists have tried to figure it out they have all come to one thing, the multiverse.
Alan Guth, is now a professor at MIT but in his youth made an important discovery.
Guth and a colleague, Henry Tye, were working on a theory of how particles may have formed in the early universe. Guth was going over his calculations one night making sure everything was correct when he found something. In the expanses of space gravity could work in reverse (the big bang). The force of what they were talking about would cause the universe to expand at an astronomical rate. That was the beginning of the theory of Eternal Inflation.
One way to prove this theory would be to, well, imagine we could shut off the sun and take away all the stars and planets. What would would we see? According to eternal inflation, you would see a sea of radiation, remnants of the big bang. The energy from the inflation of our universe would leave a certain mark on the radiation and would be like a thumbprint of our universe. When scientists tried looking at this radiation sea the results were a perfect match to the predicted image.
According to the theory of eternal inflation this force could expand
a molecule to the size of the
Milky Way Galaxy in
less then a billionth,
of a billionth, of
a billionth of a
blink of an
eye .
Andrei Linde
Alex Vilenkin
Later, two Russian physicists, Andrei Linde and Alex Vilenkin, would find a shocking secret in Guth's equation, our universe may not be alone. Alex Vilenkin attended one of Guth's talks when Alan traveled around North America sharing his idea. For many months after, Vilenkin couldn't stop thinking about inflation. Eventually he began to wonder what stops inflation. He then realized that inflation doesn't stop and is always continuing somewhere else. There would be an infinite number of bangs before ours and there will be an infinite number more in the future, therefore making an infinite multiverse. When Vilenkin proposed his idea no one really accepted it because of the fact that there is no way to detect it for not only would the universes be growing but also the space between them.
There could be another universe exactly like ours except Obama influences the world through... different ways.
The second factor
that suggests the multiverse is real can be explained quite easily with a ball. If you toss a ball upwards it will slow down
then come back down.
You would think the same would be true about the expansion of our universe,
but when scientists made the measurements, they found that the universe is actually expanding, at an accelerating speed.
If the ball continued, against the forces of gravity, you would assume that an invisible force was driving it away.
Astrophysicists thought
that this could be the
case with our
universe and there
could be some
unseen energy
causing the
universe to do
this. They called
the energy
'Dark Energy'
because they
couldn't see it.
It was surprising enough when scientists found out that dark energy was pushing the universe outwards at an accelerating rate, what was even more surprising, was the strength of it. For years, physicists have been trying to figure out why there is such a peculiar amount of dark energy in empty space. When scientists measured how much energy it would take to actually to force the galaxy outwards at an accelerating speed, they arrived at a number like this:
A decimal followed by 122 zeros and then a one. An incredibly small number compared to the estimate, trillions and trillions and trillions and trillions of times smaller than the estimate. If you made the dark matter just a tiny bit stronger by taking away just a couple zeros, you still have a tiny number but an incredibly different universe. The amount measured makes no sense, but if there is a multiverse it could make much more sense.
If you
into a hotel
and got the
room number
1,000,001 that would
seem strange. Although if the
hotel had billions of rooms you
would expect to find a room of
that number. The strange amount of dark energy that we have measured in our universe may be the same
The third and last theory that suggests the multiverse is real, string theory. A theory that says that beyond atoms and quirks, and beyond that, there are tiny, vibrating strings making up everything.
In string theory the strings can vibrate in different ways, just like a violin's strings can play different notes.
For this theory to work there's a catch, there
has to be extra dimensions of space. Everyone knows the three dimensions
that we see
These extra
be stretched in all
different directions
shaping all the
ways that the
string is
shaped and
how it vibrates.

Though there was another problem, there are 10 to the power of 500 different possible shapes of the extra dimension shape of our universe!
Again, this could make sense in a multiverse. This is exactly the type of diversity that there would be in a multiverse, so this would make total sense. Through extra dimensions string theory is essentially describing a multiverse.
10 to the power
of 500 is 10
followed by 500 zeros.

Eternal Inflation
Dark Energy
Like three legs hold up a stool, these three theories support the multiverse.
End of
Full transcript