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Properties of Chemical Families on the Periodic Table
Transcript of Properties of Chemical Families on the Periodic Table
Families contain elements with similar characteristics, usually determined by the number of electrons in the outer electron energy level. atomic number atomic mass symbol element name Alkali Metals The alkali metals have 1 valence electron. They're soft metallic solids, with characteristic metal properties of shiny luster and high thermal and electrical conductivities. The alkali metals have low densities and melting points, increasing and decreasing respectively with increasing atomic mass.
The alkali metal react vigorously with water, producing hydrogen gas and a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide. These reactions are very exothermic, in many cases generating enough heat to ignite the H , producing fire or sometimes even an explosion.
The alkali metals includes: 2 Group 1A (1) Which are abundant in all biological systems & & Hydrogen is in the Alkali Metals Family, but; although hydrogen has 1 valence electron and is found on the periodic table in group 1A, it doesn't truly belong to any particular group.
Because it has no core of electrons producing nuclear shielding, its ionization energy is significantly higher than that of the alkali metals.
Where alkali metals lose their valence electron, hydrogen normally shares its valence electron.
The fact that hydrogen can actually gain an electron further illustrates that it's not truly a member of the alkali metal family. Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A (2) The alkaline earth metals have 2 valence electrons.
They have characteristic metal properties but are harder, denser, and melt at higher temperatures than the alkali metals.
Their reaction with water increases down the group.
The alkaline earth metals includes: & Which doesn't react with water, even when red-hot. Doesn't react with liquid water but does react with steam. It's also essential for living organisms just like... 99% of this in the human body is found in the skeletal system. It also reacts with water at room temperature, along with... ... Although more slowly than the alkali metals adjacent to them on the periodic table. Transition Metals Groups 3B - 12B All d and f block metals have 2 valence electrons. Since they are large atoms, the "shielding effect" causes them to have a wide range of possible oxidation numbers when forming compounds.
The transition metals includes elements:
Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Lu*, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Lr*, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt, Ds, and Rg. Noble Gases Group 8A (18) The noble gases have 8 valence electrons. Because the noble gases possess such stable electron configurations, they are exceptionally unreactive. In fact, until the early 1960s, the elements were called the inert gases because they were thought to be incapable of forming chemical compounds.
The noble gases includes: Only one stable compound of krypton is known, KrF2. Xenon is now known to react with F2 (g) to form the molecular compounds XeF2, XeF4, XeF6. *Elements Lutetium (Lu) and Lawrencium (Lr) are included as transition metal elements on the STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials Periodic Table of Elements even though the Periodic Table in this presentation includes them with the Lanthanide and Actinide Series* Halogens Group 7A (17) The halogens have 7 valence electrons. They are typical nonmetals. Their melting and boiling points increase with increasing atomic number.
Halogens are highly active with high electron affinities. In fact, the letter X is sometimes used in chemical equations to indicate any one of the halogen elements. Halides are all very soluble in water and dissolve to form the hydrochloric acids.
The halogens includes: A gas at room temperature. Fluorine gas is so reactive that it's difficult and dangerous to use, requiring specialized lab equipment. Also a gas at room temperature. Unlike fluorine, chlorine reacts slowly with water to form relatively stable aqueous solutions. A liquid at room temperature. A solid at room temperature. It is often added to drinking water and swimming pools, where the HOCl (aq) that is produced serves as a disinfectant. Properties of the Chemical Families on the Periodic Table Periodic Table of Elements And That's The END!!
Thank You For Watching Bibliography:
1) Chemistry Textbook
2)http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/ISR/chemistry/class5.htm Alkali Metals - Group 1A (1) Alkaline Earth Metals - Group 2A (2) Halogens - Group 7A (17) Noble Gases - Group 8A (18) Transition Metals - Groups 3 - 12 (1B - 8B) To sum up:
Metal Activity Increases Non Metal Activity Increases Non Metal