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Transcript of TOK
information of where information can have more than one possible meaning (uncertainty)
3. Secondary Meaning
Euphemisms 4. Metaphor
5. Irony = Meaning and Interpretation Language is: 1. rule-governed (Grammar rules,
2.intended (Body Language)
3. creative and open-ended 1. Definition theory: Distinguishes meaningful words from the meaningless ones. Theories of Meaning: 2. Denotation theory: a word is meaningful only if it stands for something.
Ex. France is one country in Europe 3. Image theory: the meaning of a word is the mental image it stands for
ex. freedom Does written language differ from spoken language? If so, in what ways? Harlan Poeng, Maimai Gomos, Agata Sokolska, Leydiana Martin Does understanding emotions depend on the language we speak, or is our perception the same regardless of language and culture? Language linked with emotion Poet, Robert Frost observed, we rarely say exactly what we mean. Well this escalated quickly “But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. There are about 3,000 different languages in the world.
Why is the number of languages decreasing?
"Who does not know another language does not know his own." (Goeth) Language and Translation Problems of Translation Context: There are word groups in different languages that have different shades of meaning.
Ex: Angry, mad, furious, annoyed. Untranslatable Words: There are words that are unique to different languages and that are not directly translatable in one word.
. Ex: Aware (Japanese). Idioms: Idioms are sayings in one language that can have completely different meanings in other languages.
Ex: "Hanging out."
Ex: "Out of sight, out of mind" Hearing
ex. Talking on the phone,
Input from crowd Language and Perception To what extent might each area of knowledge be seen as having its own language? Does language affect our thoughts and if so, to what extent? Use of Language to Influence & Persuade Ladies may have a fit upstairs (from a tailor shop in Hong Kong).
Visitors are expected to complain at the office between the hours of 9 a.m. and 11 p.m. daily (from a hotel in Athens).
Ladies, leave your clothes here and spend the afternoon having a good time (from an Italian laundry).
We take your bags and send them in all directions (from a Danish airline ticket office).
You are invited to take advantage of the chambermaid (from a hotel in Japan). Fun Idioms Something is always lost in translation.
"Traduttore traditore," an Italian saying. Lost in Translation Is it possible for language to exist without thought? 4. Revealing and concealing 4 ways in which language can be used to influence and persuade: 1. Emotionally laden language 2. Weasel words 3. Grammar Words contain both a descriptive meaning and an emotive meaning (which evokes the possibility of intense emotion or feeling)
Emotive meaning can be either favorable or unfavorable .
hero, peace, democracy vs. thief, liar, pervert
positive connotations negative connotations
A person is more likely to prefer to be called a hero than a thief. 1. Emotionally laden language Language and emotion exist as one system Language Linked with Emotion The letter of a text: the literal meaning of the text or the word-by-word meaning of a text.
The spirit of a text: The more natural translation, or what you are actually trying to say. Both language and emotion are used for communication Each affects one another In 1947, the United States Department of War was renamed the Department of Defense. What difference, if any, do you think this makes? Euphemisms - substitution of an expression that may be offensive or unpleasant to the receiver with a mild and less offensive expression Euphemisms can be used with kidn or spiteful intentions
* used to protect people's feelings
* used to deliberately midlead people "clear-cutting" vs. "landscape management" to make an unacceptable action
sound acceptable a word used to qualify a statement so as to make it potentially misleading (example, product disclaimers) 2. Weasel Words How can we validate that our use of euphemism benefits the person receiving the information rather than misleading him or her? Seeing (color, ex. how we use blue, no generic word for blue in Russia Expressing our perceptions in words while trying not to change/lose the meaning In poetry, we must find a balance between the two. I I cnduo't bvleiee taht I culod aulaclty uesdtannrd waht I was rdnaieg. Unisg the icndeblire pweor of the hmuan mnid, aocdcrnig to rseecrah at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mttaer in waht oderr the lterets in a wrod are, the olny irpoamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rhgit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whoutit a pboerlm. Tihs is bucseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Aaznmig, huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghhuot slelinpg was ipmorantt! See if yuor fdreins can raed tihs too. George Orwell, 1984 Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Language determines our experience of reality
We can see and think only what our language allows us to see and think “The limits of my language means the limits of my world.”
Ludwig Wittgenstein Edward Sapir (1884-1939) & Benjamin Whorf (1879-1941) Works Cited an important factor in the way people see situations
"Many villages were bombed."
vs. 3. Grammar "We bombed many villages." Labels and Stereotypes -ability to use language to expose information as well as hide information 4. Revealing & Concealing Positive: organize, categorize, understand Negative: mislabeling. different ways to label Lagemaat, Richard. Theory of Knowledge. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print. Eileen, Lena and Mimi Bick. Theory of Knowledge: Course Companion. New York: Oxford, 2007. Print. -use of words or (lack of them) can affect what information is revealed and concealed Natural/objective ways to label and cultural ways to label.
-stereotypes: can be prejudices that are difficult to change Is it effective to accurately judge a person's emotions based on the language he or she communicates? Do we need both words and gestures/body languages to reveal information accurately to others or can we communicate just as effectively with just one or the other? Does the way you describe somethin gaffect how you feel about it?