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Language

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by

Vitor Ferreira Campos

on 3 January 2014

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Transcript of Language

And what is
language?!
No!
How to study a language?!
Simple: discover what a language is !
Let's skip the formalities and state the following:

Language is a code that transmits messages from
one source to another source. This code is studied
by Linguistics.

Very simple, right?!
...But it's not that simple, if you use formalities!
Don't worry about understanding it all at once!
Sub-Fields:
Phonetics; physical properties, production and perception.

Phonology; sounds (or signs) with meaning (phonemes).

Morphology; internal structures of words and how they can be modified

Syntax; words combining to form grammatical sentences

Semantics; meanings of words and meanings of sentences

Pragmatics; context and non-linguistical transmission of meaning

Discourse analysis; analysis of language use in texts

Stylistics; linguistic factors that place a discourse in context.

Semiotics; signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.
OMG! It's so
complex!
There's no
way I will
understand it!
Yes, you will!
The Simplifier
Code "Any":
Signs + Rules + Interpretation
Phonetics;
what is the sound/vision of the signs (words)?

Phonology;
what is the meaning of the sounds of each sign (word)?

Morphology;
what is the origin of each word?

Syntax;
what are the possible combinations of the words?

Semantics;
what could be the meaning of each word and sentence?

Pragmatics;
are the words transmitted only in the form of words?

Discourse analysis;
is there an appropriate way to speak or write?


Stylistics;
can the environment affect the meaning of the sentences?

Semiotics;
can all the above be analyzed at once?
Therefore...
And... Do all
languages use
the same code?
Yes and no.

The "idea" behind the code is the same.
But its signs, rules and interpretations may vary.
Really?
Even "signs"
can change?
Oh, yes!
It can happen for many reasons.

The main reason is the culture which differs from people of language A to language B. And why is that so important? For many reasons but as I showed, even the alphabet can be different. Also, culture embraces many non-verbal meanings.
But... Do I need
to know all of this?
It's a lot of information
for me to understand
instantly...
All you need to know, right now, is the answer to:
What is a language?
I know!
I know!
Language is a code
that has signs, is oriented by rules, and full of meanings. And it, the language, is what makes people able to communicate!
Code "Language":
Signs = Words
Rules = Writing + Pronunciation
Interpretations = Meanings
Code "Language" Transmission:
Sender: Write + Speak = Meanings
Receiver: Read + Listen = Meanings
By Vitor Ferreira Campos!
Full transcript