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AP English Language and Composition Review
Transcript of AP English Language and Composition Review
choice questions on 4-5 passages counts as 45% of the final score 15 minutes to read synthesis essay sources and plan essay two hours for three essay questions rhetorical analysis
argument 45% of the final score 55% of total grade Multiple Choice Tips Plan time carefully. You have about
one hour for about 54 questions or
about 1 question a minute. Survey the whole multiple choice
section. Start with a passage that seems easiest to you. You will probably need to read and then reread each passage. One read can skim; the second should scour. Survey all of the questions for each passage. Answer the ones that seem easiest first. If you're having trouble getting into a passage, read the questions first to get your bearings. If you can't eliminate two answers, skip it. Make sure the number of the question matches
the number on the answer sheet. Take a second and check each number as you go along. 5 basic types
of questions Words and/or phrases
in context: Main Idea: Terms: Function: Organization: Using the indicated portion of the text, what does the word or phrase mean? Skill--definition Read the text. Which answer best summarizers or defines the text? Skill--reading comprehension, making infrerences What does it mean? Reference: vocabulary within the text, rhetorical strategies, and literary devices. Skill--defininion. Why is a word used or what phrases are juxtaposed against each other? Skills--Determining author's purpose, reading comprehension Why is this paragraph here? Skills--Determining author's purpose, reading comprehension, understanding author's purpose. These first three types of questions are the easiest. You should expect to get at least 70-80% of these questions correct. Remember: If part of the answer choice is wrong, it's all wrong. A B C Watch out! A surface level reading will lead you directly to a wrong answer. D E Mnemonics S O A P S Tone ubject ccasion udience urpose peaker S M E L L Sender-Receiver Relationsip Message Effect Logic Language USe for advertising or other persuasive text D I D L S for descriptive passages, use . . . iction mages etails anguage yntax What is Rhetoric? Plato: the "art of enchanting the soul."
Aristotle: "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion."
Andrea Lunsford: "Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication." Writing in AP Language Your primary goal is CLARITY: the precise communication of your ideas. Remember your audience and your purpose. What do you want your audience to think,
Do or believe after reading your essay? Is your audience positive, negative, neutral, or disinterested? What kinds of evidence and reasoning would most effectively accomplish this goal? Use APT and SOPHISTICATED diction. appropriate or suitable in the circumstances Avoid pedestrian words such as "got", "a lot", "really", "Okay." Avoid cliches "You can't judge a book by it's cover" "A picture's worth a thousand words." Avoid contractions, abbreviations, and slang. Make sure every pronoun you use has a clear ANTECEDENT. Limit the "be" verbs: There is It is Use an ACTIVE VOICE Here are some effective, active verbs: Maintain present tense when analysing texts. Vary your sentence structure and length. Punctuate correctly. USe the conventions of formal writing No contractions Stick with third person . . . especially when writing the analysis essay. Show respect for the authors. Don't say that they are stupid or that they do not know what they are talking about. Chances are it is not Thoreau who does not know what he is talking about. Always (or was it never) trust a man with a beard . . . Don't refer to the authors by their first names. In the intro, you can use both names, then henceforth use the last name only. Ralph argues, "respect the child." Emerson You can use these on the multiple choice readings as well as the analysis free-response essay. lacking inspiration or excitement; dull Can you think of some more examples of pedestrian words? Never (or was it always) trust a man with lambchop sideburns. Mr. Jay? Handling Quotations " Try embedding the quotation in your own sentence. Avoid long, lumbering quotes. We have discussed this many times. Example:
It is important, as Walker maintains, to "avoid long, lumbering quotations," because even though they may take up room on the paper, they often disrupt the flow of one's own brilliant thoughts. Make sure the quotation never stands alone. Explain its significance. If you use a long quotation, indent all lines of the quote and separate it from the rest of your paper with spaces. All quotations are not created equal. Choose carefully which words you wish to quote. Remember that a mere quotation doesn't show anything, prove anything, or make anything obvious or evident. YOU, as the writer, have to do that job. Use correct MLA format when citing quotations. If your sentence ends with a quotation, be sure to put the ending quotation marks before the parenthetical citation and the period after the parenthetical. Example:
She hopes that all of her "views of England . . . should jump and die and disappear forever" (Kincaid 912).
In the synthesis essay:
disappear forever" (Source F). Students often think the words 'states' and 'quotes' are interchangeable. Thoreau states, "Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect . . ." not quotes. To quote is to repeat what someone else has said. Along those same lines, do not refer back to the quotation like this: "In this quote Woolf is talking about . . . " Be more specific and direct about what the author is doing: "By juxtaposing explosive, war time imagery with her own beliefs about gender equality, Woolf . . . " It's acceptable to use an elipsis in a quotation as long as the it still makes sense. Timed Writing Preparation Drafting Review Take the time to work the prompt TWICE. Work the text--use all the clues you see to get specifics about the author, the audience, the purpose, and the rhetorical strategies the author uses to achieve that purpose. Take the time to read the question carefully, underlining the most important parts. Plan the essay to address each part of the question. 15 minutes WOW STUFF OOH! Introductory paragraph Body Paragraphs Conclusion Don't waste time on a long or fancy intro. Throw away the bread and get to the meat. With no time for a general inroduction, your first paragraph clearly sets the angle of your analysis. Make sure your THESIS statement (and the whole first paragraph) is a direct and complete response to the prompt. Keep in mind that a fact or summary cannot be a thesis. Do not repeat the prompt, but it is often helpful to use key words. The topic sentence of each body paragraph is a CLAIM (not a fact or summary statement) which clearly supports the argument of your thesis. Each claim is well-SUPPORTed with plenty of concrete evidence. You do not need to waste time copying large sections of the text--use key words in quotation marks. Remember not to leave DRT (Direct References to Text) hanging--it needs to be secured with prose to the rest of the paragraph. INTERPRETATIONS clearly explain how the evidence supports your claim. The tie of every claim to the thesis is clear: Either it is clearly stated, or the inference is obvious. Notice that this guide to writing body paragraphs uses the CSI acronym:
I=INTERPRETATIONS But you might prefer . . . PEE POINT Evidence Explanation Remember to PEE in every paragraph. Your concluding paragraph returns to the thesis idea, but it uses different words and extends the idea. Show the reader that you have proved your thesis, but not in a boring or redundant manner. If at all possible, finish with a fresh, brilliant insight that ties all of your ideas together and at the same time flows logically from your argument. 5 minutes TRANSITIONS To link paragraphs you use effective transitions to enhance the overall flow, coherence, and sense of your essay. Review the prompt to make sure you have addressed the entire question. Check mechanics: diction, syntax, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Writing in APLAC Part 2 Analysis Essay Here are some thing you may have to discuss in your analysis essay: Rhetorical Purpose: to convince the reader to think, do, or believe X; also personal, expository, and argumentative. Rhetorical Modes narration description cause and effect process analysis comparison example classification argument Rhetorical Strategies ETHOS Establish the credibility of the speaker. PATHOS LOGOS Address the needs of the audience. Use one or more rhetorical modes to address purpose. Style/Rhetoric/Language Diction Detail Syntax Imagery TOne Some bits of advice... Stick to an analysis of the essay. Don't wander off into your personal experiences. Avoid the words, "paints a picture in the reader's mind." Too many students use it, and it doesn't say anything. Identify and explain the effect or tone the author is creating. Notice I said "and explain"--identifying isn't enough. Don't define terms. The readers are experienced AP teachers and English professors. They don't need to be told that a simile is a comparison using like or as. Anticipate objections raised by the ideas presented in X Expresses a casual relationship between X and Y Introduce a series of generalizations Makes an appeal to authority Present a thesis that will be challenged in paragraph B Presents a misconception that the author will correct Provide evidence to contrast with that in X Provide support for a thesis Provides a specific example for the preceding generalization Restates the thesis PHRASE BANK to describe RHETORICAL PURPOSE and FUNCTION How to Describe Structure and Development An exaggeration followed by qualifying statements Chronological examination of a topic Claim followed by supporting details Explanation of an issue leading to an examination of the same issue Generalization followed by other generalizations Historical example followed by contemporary examples. Movement from particular to general Presentation of two conflicting ideas followed by a resolution. Tone Acerbic and Cynical Harsh and Strident Cautious ambivalence Informal and Analytical Contemplative and Conciliatory Irate but carefully Judicious Enthusiastic and Optimistic Serious but faintly Condescending Self-deprecating humor Superficial and Capricious Lyrical nostalgia Uncertain Feigned innocence Disbelieving Poignant remorse Relieved Reverent and Respectful Objective Scornful and Unsympathetic Attitude Awe Feigned intimacy Reasoned objectivity Qualified enthusiasm Suspicion Profound admiration Disapproval Idolatrous devotion Indifference Argument Essay The Graff Model
(They Say / I Say) (author) _____ makes the general argument that _______. More specifically, X argues that ______. In this passage, X suggests that _______. In conclusion, X believes that ______. I agree/disagree with X because _______. More specifically, I believe that ______. For example, _________. Although X might object that ______. I maintain that _______. Therefore, I conclude that ______. If the topic does not involve an analysis of the author's argument, use this model: Write the thesis sentence as an "Although" sentence, putting the opposition in the dependent clause and your postion in the independent clause. Using a concessionary transition word like "Certainly," or "Sure," make the first body paragraphs a good presentation of the OPPOSITION. Give the opposing arguments full and fair presentation. Then, using a powerful turning word like "BUT" or "HOWEVER," begin the presentation of your argument. Continue with more paragraphs, using add-on transitions like "Moreover," "In addition," "Not only that," and "Furthermore," making the case solid for your position. Use the most powerful concluding word, "Therefore," and end with a memorable, succinct conclusion Advice for the Argument Essay Generate 6-10 examples that support your position. Pick the best examples, not just the first ones to pop into your head. It doesn't matter if you defend, challenge, or qualify, as long as you do it well. Think of the argument prompt as a springboard for creating your own argument. You don't need to discuss the author, and you don't try to analyze their argument. Your purpose is to persuade the reader that your argument is sound. The reader wants SPECIFIC EVIDENCE--two important words, often overlooked. The courtroom does not want the hypothetical or the theoretical. Use your own experience, incidents you know about, or what you have read. If you give me three examples of specific evidence, make sure they illustrate three DIFFERENT points, not three examples to illustrate the SAME point. "Money makes the world go around." A penny saved is a penny earned." "Eyes are the windows to the soul." "the long arm of the law." "see the writing on the wall" "in this day and age" "really paints a picture in the reader's mind" The active voice will help you and your audience recognize that there is an author at work. This is especially important in the analysis essay because you are primarily concerned with how the author did something--used writing to achieve a purpose. This is especially true if the quotation is longer than for lines on your page. Synthesis Essay 1. Take the time to read the question – underlining the most important parts. Write a quick answer to the question based on what you already know about the subject.
2. Take the time to read the sources TWICE. Work the text—use all the clues you see to get specifics about the author, the audience, the purpose, and the likely biases. This means reading the introductory information carefully as well.
3. Select 6-10 examples that support your position. Use at least three of the sources—identify the sources as (Source A) or the information in the parentheses. Pick the best examples (best means that the examples really fit the argument AND that you know enough about them to use them well), not just the first ones to pop into your head.
4. Remember that your argument is central. The sources support this argument. Do NOT merely summarize the sources.
5. Plan your argument: thesis, claims, reasoning. See Argument section for a suggested outline.