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LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND SPEECH ACTS

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Luis J Escobar Ruiz

on 12 May 2018

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Transcript of LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND SPEECH ACTS

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND SPEECH ACTS
What is communication?
Is communication exclusively human?
Can objects communicate?
Is communication verbal?
Communication is a process involving a number of characteristics, it is a form of
social interaction
taking place in a
context
, and it is understood as the
exchange and negotiation of information
between
at least two individuals
through the use of
verbal and non-verbal symbols
.
Halliday 1973
Features of communication:
It's an interaction in a context
It always has a purpose
It involves verbal and non-verbal language
COMMUNICATION
VERBAL
NONVERBAL
ORAL
WRITTEN
KINESICS
PROXEMICS
HAPTICS
ARTIFACTICS
PARALANGUAGE
THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Sender
Receiver
Channel
code
code
Topic
The Setting
or
CONTEXT
Volition or purpose: FUNCTION
competence
purpose
competence
purpose
FUNCTIONS
OF
LANGUAGE
WHAT DO YOU WANT THE LANGUAGE FOR?
A FUNCTION IS WHAT PEOPLE DO BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE
Van Ek & Trim, 1990
The function is the PURPOSE which the individuals use the language for.
Language primarily serves the purpose communication. It is a linguistic tool
Plato -
Cratylus
Language has only two main purposes:
ritual and pragmatic.
Bronislaw Malinowsky -
The problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages
(1929)
Saussure's model
Communication is linear
Participants are both simultaneously active
FUNCTIONS: Audition and phonation
Jakobson's model
EMOTIVE
CONATIVE
REFERENTIAL
PHATIC
POETIC
METALINGUISTIC
CONTEXTUAL
SENDER
RECEIVER
TOPIC
CHANNEL
MESSAGE
CODE
SETTING
PARTICIPANTS
FUNCTIONS
HALLIDAY'S MODEL
CEFR MODEL
MACROFUNCTIONS or METAFUNCTIONS
IDEATIONAL
INTERPERSONAL
TEXTUAL
MICROFUNCTIONS
INSTRUMENTAL
REGULATORY
REPRESENTATIONAL
INTERACTIONAL
PERSONAL
HEURISTIC
IMAGINATIVE
IMPARTING AND SEEKING
FACTUAL INFORMATION
EXPRESSING AND FINDING OUT ATTITUDES
GETTING THINGS DONE (SUASION)
SOCIALISING
STRUCTURING DISCOURSE
COMMUNICATION REPAIR
THE EXPONENTS
Language used to express a function
One exponent can express different functions depending on the
context
Exponent
: "
I'm so tired"
Context 1
: Child doing his homework
Function
: Requesting to stop
Context 2
: Patient talking to his doctor
Function
: Describing physical state
REGISTERS
FROZEN
:
Participants should remain seated through the ceremony.
FORMAL
:
Those taking part should sit during the proceedings.
CONSULTATIVE
:
Would you please stay in your seats.
CASUAL
:
Don't get up your seats.
INTIMATE
:
Sit tight!
One function can be expressed through different exponents depending on the
level of formality
It is called
REGISTER
SPEECH ACTS
FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF COMMUNICATION
LOCUTIONARY
ACT
Actual form of locution:
- Pronunciation (
Phonetics
)
- Meaning (
Semantics
)
- Collocation (
Syntax
)
ILLOCUTIONARY
ACT
The real intentions of the speaker in the locution.
PERLOCUTIONARY
ACT
The effects of the locution. The actions that result from the locution.

J.L. AUSTIN - 1962
THREE ACTS FOR ANY SPEECH
"THAT TEA SMELLS GREAT"
Phonetic form
: /ðət tiː smelz ˈɡreɪt/
Semantic form
:
The hot beverage over there has a good scent
Syntactic form
:
simple sentence with a subject, a verb and a subject complement.
Suggesting that I would love to have a cup of that tea.
The addresser offers me a cup of that tea.
ILLOCUTIONARY
ACTS TYPES
ASSERTIVE
Speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition.
DIRECTIVE
Speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advice
COMMISSIVE
Speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. promises and oaths
EXPRESSIVE
Speech acts that express on the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. congratulations, excuses and thanks
DECLARATIVE
Speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife
SEARLE - 1975
“Jimmy is a reputed businessman.”
“Will you bring me a coffee?”
“I will consider your proposal seriously.”
“I’m so excited that we are going on holiday.”
“We the jury find the defendant to be guilty.”
FUNCTIONS INTO PRACTICE: SPEAKING ACTIVITIES
PAST:
Direct Method
Audio-lingual Method
NOWADAYS:
Communicative Approach
Task based Approach
DIRECTED SPEECH:
Repetitions and drills
No freedom for the student
FREE SPEECH:
Creativity
Fluency
provide opportunities for language practice.
be interesting.
be within the students' experience and close to their lives.
PLANNING A SPEAKING LESSON
SPEAKING ACTIVITIES MUST:
TYPES
OF
SPEAKING
ACTIVITIES

REPETITION AND IMITATION ACTIVITIES
Repetitions drills
Substitution drills
Transformation drills
Guessing drills
CONTROLLED ACTIVITIES
Question / Answer
Right / Wrong statement
Stating consequences
Pairwork activities:
Model dialogue and key words
Gap dialogues
Cue words
Picture cards
Decision-making activities
Questionnaires
AUTONOMOUS INTERACTION
ACTIVITIES
Functional communication activities
Discovering identical pairs
Discovering missing information
Discovering secrets (guessing games)
Social interaction activities or role-plays
Open-ended dialogue
Mapped dialogue
Role play under instructions
1. Identifying
2. Reporting (describing and narrating)
3. Correcting
4. Asking
5. Answering questions
1. Expressing agreement
2. Expressing disagreement
3. Enquiring about agreement and disagreement.
4. Denying statements
5. Stating whether one knows or does not know a person, thing or fact.
6. Enquiring whether one knows or does not know a person, thing or fact.
7. Stating whether one remembers or has forgotten a person, thing, fact or action.
8. Enquiring whether one remembers or has forgotten a person, thing, fact or action.
9. Expressing degrees of probability.
10. Enquiring as to degree of probability.
11. Expressing or denying necessity (including logical deduction)
12. Enquiring as to necessity (including logical deduction)
13. Expressing degrees of certainty.
14. Enquiring about degrees of certainty.
15. Expressing obligation.
16. Enquiring about obligation.
17. Expressing ability/inability to do something.
18. Enquiring about ability or inability to do something.
19. Expressing that something is or is not permitted, or permissible.
20. Enquiring whether something is or is not permitted or permissible (including seeking permission.)
21. Granting permission.
22. Withholding permission
23. Expressing wants/desires
24. Enquiring about wants/desires
25. Expressing intentions.
26. Enquiring about intentions.
27. Expressing preference.
28. Enquiring about preference.
29. Expressing pleasure, happiness.
30. Expressing displeasure, unhappiness.
31. Enquiring about pleasure/displeasure, happiness/unhappiness.
32. Expressing liking.
33. Expressing dislike.
34. Enquiring about likes and dislikes.
35. Expressing satisfaction.
36. Expressing dissatisfaction.
37. Enquiring about satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
38. Expressing interest.
39. Expressing lack of interest.
40. Enquiring about interest or lack of interest.
41. Expressing surprise
42. Expressing lack of surprise.
43. Enquiring about surprise.
44. Expressing hope
45. Expressing disappointment.
46. Expressing fear
47. Giving reassurance
48. Enquiring about fear/worry
49. Expressing gratitude.
50. Reacting to an expression of gratitude.
51. Offering an apology.
52. Accepting an apology.
53. Expressing moral obligation.
54. Expressing approval
55. Expressing disapproval
56. Enquiring about approval/disapproval
57. Expressing regret, sympathy.
1. Suggesting a course of action (involving both speaker and addressee)
2. Agreeing to a suggestion.
3. Requesting someone to do something.
4. Advising someone to do something.
5. Warning others to do something or to refrain from doing something.
6. Encouraging someone to do something.
7. Instructing or directing.
8. Requesting assistance.
9. Offering assistance.
10. Inviting someone to do something.
11. Accepting an offer or invitation.
12. Declining an offer or invitation.
13. Enquiring whether an offer or invitation is accepted or declined.
14. Asking someone for something.
1. Attracting attention
2. Greeting people
3. When meeting a friend or acquaintance
4. Replying to a greeting from a friend or acquaintance.
5. Addressing a friend or acquaintance.
6. Addressing a stranger.
7. Addressing a customer or a member of the general public.
8. Introducing someone to someone else.
9. When being introduced to someone, or when someone is introduced to you.
10. Congratulating someone.
11. Proposing a toast.
12. Taking leave.
1. Opening
2. Hesitating
3. Correcting oneself
4. Introducing a theme
5. Expressing an opinion
6. Enumerating
7. Exemplifying
8. Emphasising
9. Summarising
10. Changing the theme
11. Asking someone to change the theme.
12. Asking someone's opinion
13. Showing that one is following a person's discourse.
14. Interrupting.
15. Asking someone to be silent.
16. Giving over the floor.
17. Indicating a with to continue.
18. Encouraging someone to continue.
19. Indicating that one is coming to an end.
20. Closing.
On a telephone
21. Opening
22. Asking.
23. Asking someone to wait.
24. Asking whether you are heard and understood.
25. Giving signals that you are hearing and understanding.
26. Announcing new call.
Letters
27. Opening
28. Closing
1. Signalling non-understanding.
2. Asking for repetition of sentence.
3. Asking for a repetition of a word or phrase.
4. Asking for confirmation of text.
5. Asking for confirmation or understanding.
6. Asking for clarification.
7. Asking someone to spell something.
8. Asking for something to be written down.
9. Expressing ignorance of a word or expression.
10. Appealing for assistance.
11. Asking someone to speak more slowly.
12. Paraphrasing
13. Repeating what one has said.
14. Asking if you have been understood.
15. Spelling out a word or expression.
16. Supplying a word or expression.
Full transcript