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LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND SPEECH ACTS
Transcript of LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND SPEECH ACTS
What is communication?
Is communication exclusively human?
Can objects communicate?
Is communication verbal?
Communication is a process involving a number of characteristics, it is a form of
taking place in a
, and it is understood as the
exchange and negotiation of information
at least two individuals
through the use of
verbal and non-verbal symbols
Features of communication:
It's an interaction in a context
It always has a purpose
It involves verbal and non-verbal language
THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Volition or purpose: FUNCTION
WHAT DO YOU WANT THE LANGUAGE FOR?
A FUNCTION IS WHAT PEOPLE DO BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE
Van Ek & Trim, 1990
The function is the PURPOSE which the individuals use the language for.
Language primarily serves the purpose communication. It is a linguistic tool
Language has only two main purposes:
ritual and pragmatic.
Bronislaw Malinowsky -
The problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages
Communication is linear
Participants are both simultaneously active
FUNCTIONS: Audition and phonation
MACROFUNCTIONS or METAFUNCTIONS
IMPARTING AND SEEKING
EXPRESSING AND FINDING OUT ATTITUDES
GETTING THINGS DONE (SUASION)
Language used to express a function
One exponent can express different functions depending on the
I'm so tired"
: Child doing his homework
: Requesting to stop
: Patient talking to his doctor
: Describing physical state
Participants should remain seated through the ceremony.
Those taking part should sit during the proceedings.
Would you please stay in your seats.
Don't get up your seats.
One function can be expressed through different exponents depending on the
level of formality
It is called
FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF COMMUNICATION
Actual form of locution:
- Pronunciation (
- Meaning (
- Collocation (
The real intentions of the speaker in the locution.
The effects of the locution. The actions that result from the locution.
J.L. AUSTIN - 1962
THREE ACTS FOR ANY SPEECH
"THAT TEA SMELLS GREAT"
: /ðət tiː smelz ˈɡreɪt/
The hot beverage over there has a good scent
simple sentence with a subject, a verb and a subject complement.
Suggesting that I would love to have a cup of that tea.
The addresser offers me a cup of that tea.
Speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition.
Speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advice
Speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. promises and oaths
Speech acts that express on the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. congratulations, excuses and thanks
Speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife
SEARLE - 1975
“Jimmy is a reputed businessman.”
“Will you bring me a coffee?”
“I will consider your proposal seriously.”
“I’m so excited that we are going on holiday.”
“We the jury find the defendant to be guilty.”
FUNCTIONS INTO PRACTICE: SPEAKING ACTIVITIES
Task based Approach
Repetitions and drills
No freedom for the student
provide opportunities for language practice.
be within the students' experience and close to their lives.
PLANNING A SPEAKING LESSON
SPEAKING ACTIVITIES MUST:
REPETITION AND IMITATION ACTIVITIES
Question / Answer
Right / Wrong statement
Model dialogue and key words
Functional communication activities
Discovering identical pairs
Discovering missing information
Discovering secrets (guessing games)
Social interaction activities or role-plays
Role play under instructions
2. Reporting (describing and narrating)
5. Answering questions
1. Expressing agreement
2. Expressing disagreement
3. Enquiring about agreement and disagreement.
4. Denying statements
5. Stating whether one knows or does not know a person, thing or fact.
6. Enquiring whether one knows or does not know a person, thing or fact.
7. Stating whether one remembers or has forgotten a person, thing, fact or action.
8. Enquiring whether one remembers or has forgotten a person, thing, fact or action.
9. Expressing degrees of probability.
10. Enquiring as to degree of probability.
11. Expressing or denying necessity (including logical deduction)
12. Enquiring as to necessity (including logical deduction)
13. Expressing degrees of certainty.
14. Enquiring about degrees of certainty.
15. Expressing obligation.
16. Enquiring about obligation.
17. Expressing ability/inability to do something.
18. Enquiring about ability or inability to do something.
19. Expressing that something is or is not permitted, or permissible.
20. Enquiring whether something is or is not permitted or permissible (including seeking permission.)
21. Granting permission.
22. Withholding permission
23. Expressing wants/desires
24. Enquiring about wants/desires
25. Expressing intentions.
26. Enquiring about intentions.
27. Expressing preference.
28. Enquiring about preference.
29. Expressing pleasure, happiness.
30. Expressing displeasure, unhappiness.
31. Enquiring about pleasure/displeasure, happiness/unhappiness.
32. Expressing liking.
33. Expressing dislike.
34. Enquiring about likes and dislikes.
35. Expressing satisfaction.
36. Expressing dissatisfaction.
37. Enquiring about satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
38. Expressing interest.
39. Expressing lack of interest.
40. Enquiring about interest or lack of interest.
41. Expressing surprise
42. Expressing lack of surprise.
43. Enquiring about surprise.
44. Expressing hope
45. Expressing disappointment.
46. Expressing fear
47. Giving reassurance
48. Enquiring about fear/worry
49. Expressing gratitude.
50. Reacting to an expression of gratitude.
51. Offering an apology.
52. Accepting an apology.
53. Expressing moral obligation.
54. Expressing approval
55. Expressing disapproval
56. Enquiring about approval/disapproval
57. Expressing regret, sympathy.
1. Suggesting a course of action (involving both speaker and addressee)
2. Agreeing to a suggestion.
3. Requesting someone to do something.
4. Advising someone to do something.
5. Warning others to do something or to refrain from doing something.
6. Encouraging someone to do something.
7. Instructing or directing.
8. Requesting assistance.
9. Offering assistance.
10. Inviting someone to do something.
11. Accepting an offer or invitation.
12. Declining an offer or invitation.
13. Enquiring whether an offer or invitation is accepted or declined.
14. Asking someone for something.
1. Attracting attention
2. Greeting people
3. When meeting a friend or acquaintance
4. Replying to a greeting from a friend or acquaintance.
5. Addressing a friend or acquaintance.
6. Addressing a stranger.
7. Addressing a customer or a member of the general public.
8. Introducing someone to someone else.
9. When being introduced to someone, or when someone is introduced to you.
10. Congratulating someone.
11. Proposing a toast.
12. Taking leave.
3. Correcting oneself
4. Introducing a theme
5. Expressing an opinion
10. Changing the theme
11. Asking someone to change the theme.
12. Asking someone's opinion
13. Showing that one is following a person's discourse.
15. Asking someone to be silent.
16. Giving over the floor.
17. Indicating a with to continue.
18. Encouraging someone to continue.
19. Indicating that one is coming to an end.
On a telephone
23. Asking someone to wait.
24. Asking whether you are heard and understood.
25. Giving signals that you are hearing and understanding.
26. Announcing new call.
1. Signalling non-understanding.
2. Asking for repetition of sentence.
3. Asking for a repetition of a word or phrase.
4. Asking for confirmation of text.
5. Asking for confirmation or understanding.
6. Asking for clarification.
7. Asking someone to spell something.
8. Asking for something to be written down.
9. Expressing ignorance of a word or expression.
10. Appealing for assistance.
11. Asking someone to speak more slowly.
13. Repeating what one has said.
14. Asking if you have been understood.
15. Spelling out a word or expression.
16. Supplying a word or expression.