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Political Parties

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Nicholas Antonucci

on 24 October 2017

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Transcript of Political Parties

Political Parties
Political Party
One-party dominance
in House districts tends to produce winning candidates that are more
extremely ideological
In recent years, the
Democratic Party
and the
Republican Party
have become more ideologically polarized.
Tea Party movement
has made the
Republican Party
organization of ideologically similar people that recruits, nominates and elects its members to office in order to control the government
is known as a
political party
Features, characteristic of
political parties
They run candidates under a label.
They seek to govern.
They have broad concerns.
They have a special relationship with the government.

political parties
have broad issue concerns.
role is undertaken by the majority party in legislatures at all levels is to:
Elect legislative leaders
Make committee assignments
Hold the majority on committees
Arguably the most important role of
political parties
in the American political system is to promote
responsibility among elected officials and provide a "check" on their powers.
Media attention
political parties
tends to
highlight their differences on ideological and policy issues
The theory that it is the function of a
political party
to give voters a clear choice by
establishing priorities or policy stances that are the responsible party model.
Registering, canvassing, and mobilizing voters
is an example of
grassroots organizing
Party identifiers
are typically measured by
party registration during voting
, and
people with some college education
likely to vote for
Ethnic minorities
likely to vote for
One's ideology is the best predictor of a person's
party identification.
Upper-middle-class voters, religious citizens, and small-business owners
have usually composed the base of the
Republican Party
Despite the differences between the
Democratic and Republican parties
the economy
is an area that is a high priority for both parties.
Former House Speaker
Tip O'Neill
said that

"All politics is local"
With respect to
real political power
county and local party
is where the most important components of a party organization can be found.
Buckley v. Valeo 1976 Supreme Court decision created the
loophole, through which political parties could raise unlimited funds at the state level.

Divided government
occurs when different parties control the executive and legislative branches.
In 2010, the
gained control of the U.S. House of Representatives, while the
maintained control of the Senate, and Barack Obama, a
, was president.

This situation is known as truncated government.
is the term is used by political scientists to describe a shift in party allegiances or electoral support.
Political machines
primarily used patronage as a device to reward political supporters.
Over the last several decades, political scientists have agreed that the
power of political parties has declined significantly
Lack of a
viable alternative
is the factor that scholars identify as supportive of the current two-party system.
Since 1968, political scientists have argued that
the trend or process whereby a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without developing a new one to replace it. This is a notable feature of the new party politics.
The phrase "
" best describes the electoral system in the United States.
election laws
at the federal and state levels are written primarily by
Green Party
is an example of an issue advocacy party.
Because of the
Tea Party's
sometimes fractured relationship with the
Republican Party
, people to wonder whether or not it might become a
splinter party
Ross Perot
's run in
was the most recent presidential election in which an independent or third party candidate received
at least 10 percent of the vote
The following are key principles of
Tea Party
less government
fiscal responsibility
lower taxes
states' rights
national security

Candidate-centered campaign
Candidate committees
Divided government
Grassroots organizing
Loyal opposition
New Deal
New Deal coalition
Party identifiers
Party in government
Party in the electorate
Party organization
Party system
Political machinePolitical party
Primary election
Proportional representation system
Responsible party model
Soft money loophole
Spoils system
Tea Party movement
Third party
Ticket splitting
Truncated government
Winner-take-all system
Surprise Vocabulary Quiz- 10/24
The First Party System:
The Development of Parties, 1789-1828
In 1788,
George Washington
was elected president (consensus surrounding his election proved short-lived).
& the Federalists favored strong national government.
Opposed by
Anti-Federalist who feared strong national government. Look at the the 1796 and 1800 elections
The 1800 election marked end of Federalists.
The supporters of Jefferson became known as Jeffersonian Republicans; later, Democratic-Republicans. The modern descendants of the Democratic-Republicans today are called Democrats.
The Era of Good Feelings (1815-1828)
The Second Party System:
The Democrats’ Rise to Power, 1828-1860
Jacksonian Democrats
- espoused populism and the spoils system.
Jacksonian Democrats
succeeded in mobilizing the masses, sweeping Jackson to victory in the presidential election of 1828.
Whig party
founded in 1836 to represent interests of southern plantation owners and northern industrialists.
Political parties had become the medium through which many Americans were politicized
, and in 1828, for the first time, more than one million Americans cast their ballots in the presidential contest.
The Third Party System:
The Republicans’ Rise to Power, 1860-1896
In the 1850s, slavery became the primary concern for both the Whigs and the Democrats.
A new antislavery party, the
, formed in 1854 and gained the support of
abolitionist Whigs
northern Democrats
The victory of the Republican presidential nominee,
Abraham Lincoln
, in the election of 1860 marked the beginning of a period of dominance of the
antislavery Republicans
, which continued even after the Civil War.
During this time, the Republican Party enjoyed strong support from newly franchised African-American voters.
Political machines
came to dominate the political landscape during this period as did
Party bosses & the patronage system
The Fourth Party System:
Republican Dominance, 1896-1932
The 1896 election ushered in an era of
dominance that would last until the election of 1912.
In the 1912 presidential election,
Theodore Roosevelt ran as a Progressive
Republicans’ split between William Howard Taft’s regular Republicans and Roosevelt’s Progressives powered Democrat Woodrow Wilson to the presidency with only 42 percent of the popular vote.
After Wilson’s two terms, the Republicans retained control of the presidency throughout the 1920s.
The Fifth Party System:
Democratic Dominance, 1932-1968
Franklin D Roosevelt
) elected in the 1932 election.
FDR promoted a New Deal, a broad program in which the government would bear the responsibility of providing a “safety net” to protect the most disadvantaged members of society & was supported by New Deal coalition—a voting bloc comprising
traditional southern Democrats, northern city dwellers (especially immigrants and the poor), Catholics, unionized and blue-collar workers, African Americans, and women
Truman (1948) and Eisenhower (1952 & 1956) election victories
Democrats John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson
held the presidency through most of the 1960s, the events of that decade wreaked havoc on the Democratic Party.
Buckley v. Valeo
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