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Political Parties

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by

Nicholas Antonucci

on 31 October 2016

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Transcript of Political Parties

Political Parties
Political Party
One-party dominance
in House districts tends to produce winning candidates that are more
extremely ideological
.
In recent years, the
Democratic Party
and the
Republican Party
have become more ideologically polarized.
The
Tea Party movement
has made the
Republican Party
more
conservative
.
An
organization of ideologically similar people that recruits, nominates and elects its members to office in order to control the government
is known as a
political party
.
The essential features is a characteristic of
political parties
:
They run candidates under a label.
They seek to govern.
They have broad concerns.
They have a special relationship with the government.

Generally,
political parties
have broad issue concerns.
A
HUGE
role is undertaken by the majority party in legislatures at all levels is to:
Elect legislative leaders
Make committee assignments
Hold the majority on committees
Arguably the most important role of
political parties
in the American political system is to promote
responsibility among elected officials and provide a "check" on their powers.
Media attention
on
political parties
tends to
highlight their differences on ideological and policy issues
.
The theory that it is the function of a
political party
to give voters a clear choice by
establishing priorities or policy stances that are the responsible party model.
Registering, canvassing, and mobilizing voters
is an example of
grassroots organizing
.
Party identifiers
are typically measured by
party registration during voting
.
Whites
,
men
, and
people with some college education
are
MOST
likely to vote for
Republicans
.
Ethnic minorities
and
women
are
MOST
likely to vote for
Democrats
.
One's ideology is the best predictor of a person's
party identification.
Upper-middle-class voters, religious citizens, and small-business owners
have usually composed the base of the
Republican Party
.
Despite the differences between the
Democratic and Republican parties
,
the economy
is an area that is a high priority for both parties.
Former House Speaker
Tip O'Neill
said that

"All politics is local"
.
With respect to
real political power
,
county and local party
is where the most important components of a party organization can be found.
Buckley v. Valeo 1976 Supreme Court decision created the
soft-money
loophole, through which political parties could raise unlimited funds at the state level.

Divided government
occurs when different parties control the executive and legislative branches.
In 2010, the
Republicans
gained control of the U.S. House of Representatives, while the
Democrats
maintained control of the Senate, and Barack Obama, a
Democrat
, was president.

This situation is known as truncated government.
Realignment
is the term is used by political scientists to describe a shift in party allegiances or electoral support.
Political machines
primarily used patronage as a device to reward political supporters.
Over the last several decades, political scientists have agreed that the
power of political parties has declined significantly
.
Lack of a
viable alternative
is the factor that scholars identify as supportive of the current two-party system.
Since 1968, political scientists have argued that
dealignment,
the trend or process whereby a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without developing a new one to replace it. This is a notable feature of the new party politics.
The phrase "
winner-take-all
" best describes the electoral system in the United States.
The
election laws
at the federal and state levels are written primarily by
Democrats
and
Republicans
.
Green Party
is an example of an issue advocacy party.
Because of the
Tea Party's
sometimes fractured relationship with the
Republican Party
, people to wonder whether or not it might become a
splinter party
Ross Perot
's run in
1992
was the most recent presidential election in which an independent or third party candidate received
at least 10 percent of the vote
.
The following are key principles of
Tea Party
supporters:
less government
fiscal responsibility
lower taxes
states' rights
national security

Candidate-centered campaign
Candidate committees
Dealignment
Divided government
Grassroots organizing
Independent
Loyal opposition
New Deal
New Deal coalition
Party identifiers
Party in government
Party in the electorate
Party organization
Party system
Patronage
Platform
Political machinePolitical party
Populism
Primary election
Proportional representation system
Realignment
Responsible party model
Soft money loophole
Spoils system
Tea Party movement
Third party
Ticket splitting
Truncated government
Winner-take-all system
Surprise Vocabulary Quiz- 10/27
The First Party System:
The Development of Parties, 1789-1828
In 1788,
George Washington
was elected president (consensus surrounding his election proved short-lived).
Hamilton
& the Federalists favored strong national government.
Opposed by
Jefferson
Anti-Federalist who feared strong national government. Look at the the 1796 and 1800 elections
The 1800 election marked end of Federalists.
The supporters of Jefferson became known as Jeffersonian Republicans; later, Democratic-Republicans. The modern descendants of the Democratic-Republicans today are called Democrats.
The Era of Good Feelings (1815-1828)
The Second Party System:
The Democrats’ Rise to Power, 1828-1860
The
Jacksonian Democrats
- espoused populism and the spoils system.
The
Jacksonian Democrats
succeeded in mobilizing the masses, sweeping Jackson to victory in the presidential election of 1828.
Whig party
founded in 1836 to represent interests of southern plantation owners and northern industrialists.
Political parties had become the medium through which many Americans were politicized
, and in 1828, for the first time, more than one million Americans cast their ballots in the presidential contest.
The Third Party System:
The Republicans’ Rise to Power, 1860-1896
In the 1850s, slavery became the primary concern for both the Whigs and the Democrats.
A new antislavery party, the
Republicans
, formed in 1854 and gained the support of
abolitionist Whigs
and
northern Democrats
.
The victory of the Republican presidential nominee,
Abraham Lincoln
, in the election of 1860 marked the beginning of a period of dominance of the
antislavery Republicans
, which continued even after the Civil War.
During this time, the Republican Party enjoyed strong support from newly franchised African-American voters.
Political machines
came to dominate the political landscape during this period as did
Party bosses & the patronage system
The Fourth Party System:
Republican Dominance, 1896-1932
The 1896 election ushered in an era of
Republican
dominance that would last until the election of 1912.
In the 1912 presidential election,
Theodore Roosevelt ran as a Progressive
.
The
Republicans’ split between William Howard Taft’s regular Republicans and Roosevelt’s Progressives powered Democrat Woodrow Wilson to the presidency with only 42 percent of the popular vote.
After Wilson’s two terms, the Republicans retained control of the presidency throughout the 1920s.
The Fifth Party System:
Democratic Dominance, 1932-1968
Franklin D Roosevelt
(
FDR
) elected in the 1932 election.
FDR promoted a New Deal, a broad program in which the government would bear the responsibility of providing a “safety net” to protect the most disadvantaged members of society & was supported by New Deal coalition—a voting bloc comprising
traditional southern Democrats, northern city dwellers (especially immigrants and the poor), Catholics, unionized and blue-collar workers, African Americans, and women
.
Truman (1948) and Eisenhower (1952 & 1956) election victories
Although
Democrats John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson
held the presidency through most of the 1960s, the events of that decade wreaked havoc on the Democratic Party.
t
Buckley v. Valeo
Full transcript