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Long Term Effects of Exercise in the Musculoskeletal System

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on 11 June 2014

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Transcript of Long Term Effects of Exercise in the Musculoskeletal System

what is strength?

the amount of force one can exeed against a force

effects on the Musculoskeletal system
Has anyone heard of hypertrophy?

Hypertrophy & Increased Strength: Muscle hypertrophy is a term for the growth and increase of the size of muscle cells. The most common type of muscular hypertrophy occurs as a result of physical exercise, such as weight lifting.

Hypertrophy and strength
Increase in Myoglobin and Mitochondria: Muscles increase their oxidative capacity (their ability to use oxygen to produce energy) with regular training. This is achieved by an increase in the number of mitochondria (an
organelle where aerobic energy is produced) within the muscle cells which will increase the supply of ATP and an increase in the quantity of enzymes involved in the production of ATP. The ability of the muscle to store myoglobin is
increased (myoglobin is like haemoglobin and carries oxygen).

Increased tolerance to Lactic Acid
As we participate in physical activity we use different energy systems to exert different amounts of energy.
Energy Systems
increased in size and number of mitochondria are accompanied by increases in the enzyme that work inside to increase the production of earobic energy. These changes explain increased performances in aerobic exercises. the same can be said of enzymes that help produce energy within the Lactic acid system when glucose is being broken down.
Increased Aerobic and Anerobic Enzymes
Fat is a main source of energy during low intensity exercise. When glycogen stores deplete during long periods of exercise the use of fat as a fuel increases. Trained athletes can use a greater amount of fat as a fuel compared to non-athletes which can help in preserving glycogen stores for a longer period.
Increased use of Fats as an Energy Store
As one continues to exercise, there is a complex interaction of nervous system responses that results in an increase in protein synthesis over months and the muscle cells begin to grow larger and stronger.

Increase in Tendon Strength: tendons are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue.
Like muscles, tendons adapt to the mechanical loading of regular exercise. A general adaptation is increased strength but different types of training will exert differing effects on muscle – tendon complexes. Ligaments and tendons will increase in flexibility and strength with exercise. Articular cartilage also becomes thicker.

Lactic acid Anaerobic training stimulates the muscles to become better able to tolerate lactic acid and clear it away more efficiently. With endurance training the capillary network extends allowing greater volumes of blood to supply the muscles with oxygen and nutrients. The muscles are able to use more fate as a fuel source and become more efficient at using oxygen.
• Increase in Bone Calcium Stores: your bones store 99% of the calcium in your body. Your body uses your skeletal system as a calcium savings account. Your cells need constant access to calcium, which is available in the blood. Blood calcium is regulated by hormones sensitive to the amount of calcium in your blood. If there is not enough calcium inside the blood, your body may call upon the calcium inside your bones, especially if your dietary calcium is lacking. If your body continuously takes calcium from your bones, you risk having weak bones, a condition known as osteoporosis.
• Increased stretch of Ligaments: ligaments are a strong band of fibrous tissue, the function of ligaments are to connect one bone to another tissue. Resistance training can increase the size and strength of tendons and ligaments. This may be due to an increase of collagen within the connective tissue sheaths.
increased thickness of hayline cartilage

Hayline cartilage is semi transparent and appears bluish-white in colours. it is extremely strong, butvery flexible and elastic. Hayline catilage occurs in the trachea, larynx, the tips of the nose and morst importantly the end of the bones where they form joints.

the functions of hayline cartilage are:
- a reduced amount of friction in the joint
- facilitates bone movement

this caritalage thickens in the long term as more cartilage is produced due to increased impact and movement.
Increased prodution of synovial fluid: a slippery fluid, it has the consistancy of egg whites that is contained in the joint cavity. the fluid reduces friction between the articular cartilage, it also nurishes the articular cartilage. During exercise the body secretes more synovial fluid to ludricate the joints even more due o the increased movement around a joint.
Respiratory System
Various changes occur to our respiratory system as we exercise
Increased Lung Capacity
In general lung volumes and capacities change very little with training. Vital capacity (the amount of air that can be breathed out after maximal inspiration) increases slightly. Tidal volume (the amount breathed out each breath) is unchanged at rest but shows some increases at maximal exercise.
Increased in Minute Vetilation
After training breathing rate at rest may be slightly lowered as a result of increased effeciency of the lung but it can be increased at maximal exercise. Minute volume (the amount breathed out in one minute) can increase dramatically during maximal work from 120 L/Min up to about 150 L/min following training. this is a result of increased tidal volume and breathing rate.
Increased Strength of Respiatory Muscles
The muscles of respiration can increse their strength following training (diaphragm and intercostal muscles)
Increase in oxygen diffusion rate:
our oxygen diffusion rate is how long it takes for the oxygen to be transferred from the lungs into the blood, and the blood into the muscles. As the heart rate increases during exercise more blood is pumped around the body, so more blood can be distributed and diffused into the muscles as they need more oxygen. The diffusion gradient increases as more oxygen is caused and more waste product is increased. in long term exercise the diffusion rate becomes fast as the heart is more efficient and more blood can be shunted round the body.
Long Term Effects of Exercise
Cardiovascular Effects
many changes occur to the cardiovascular system when a person exercises in the long term.
Cardiovascular Hypertrophy
hypertrophy of the heart is when the muscle of the heart increases, this decreases the filling time of the heart because the contraction of the heart is stronger and the venus return of blood is more efficient.
as muscle size increase, strength increases
Increase in stroke volume and cardiac output (Q)
Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one beat from one ventricle, as the cardiac mucles increases in size and strength there is an increase in filling time, which means more blood can be pumped out of the heart. Note starlings law 'The force of contraction depends on the length of muscle fibers of the heart wall.'
decrease in resting heart rate
Resting heart rate is the number of beats a minute your heart does at rest (BPM) the best time to measure this is as soon as you wake up in the morning. If the heart is stronger and muscle is bigger (due to long term physical activity) the heart has to work less hard to pump a sustainable amount of blood around the body.
long term exercise can lead to the development of the capillary network to a part of the body. Aerobic exercise can increase the number of capillaries. As a result of this blood flow to the muscle will increase which will give a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients.
blood volume represents the amount of
blood circulating in the body and varies from person to person and can increase
as a result of training. Capillarisation is the cause of the increase.

Increase in blood volume
Exercise increases blood pressure during
the activity but it returns to normal afterwards. The quicker it does this the more aerobically fit you are likely to be. Research suggests that regular exercise can decrease resting blood pressure however this is only in hypertensive people.

Reduction in resting blood pressure

Create a mind map around a picture of lungs and note the changes that occur. Also ask anything they are not sure of.
Before students leave they must have finished the mind map and emailed it to the teacher (myself).
Hand out included of a muscular person.
Students should get into pairs and label the hand out with information about what happens as a result of long term exercise. For example, label on the hip (head of the femur and asatabulum of the pelvis and explain the increase in hyaline cartilage.

- Learn the energy system changes off my heart- ready for fire questions..
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