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Copy of Balloon Morphing: How Gases Contract and Expand

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justin musella

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Balloon Morphing: How Gases Contract and Expand

Taylor Jones

Mrs. Schmidt
1st Period Balloon Morphing: How Gases Contract and Expand Introduction

Every single thing in the world is made up of matter, from the balloons in the experiment to the trees outside and dirt that is walked on day after day. Matter comes in four different forms, called states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas. In this particular experiment the form being used , gas, takes the shape of the containers that it is in. It spreads out the more the balloon is filled up and evenly distributes gas molecules inside.. The gas molecules are not connected together. They continue to spread out more and more until they collide into another gas molecule or hit the edge of the balloon, and then bounce off and continue in another direction until they connect with something else. The combined motion energy of all of the gas molecules in a container is called the average kinetic energy.
In this experiment, I will be testing whether or not the above is always true and placing three separate balloons in the same room, cold, and hot temperature environments. I believe that every balloon will contract in the cold area and expand in the hot area. Material and Methods

•three standard latex party balloons
•tape measure
•room temperature
•cold temperature (freezer)
•hot temperature (inside vehicle)
•thermometer
•clock
•paper and pencil
•helper Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to test how standard latex balloons react to various temperature changes. In order to accomplish this task, three separate balloons were blown up and measured around their fullest section for circumference, and then placed in an area at room temperature, an area at a cold temperature, and then an area at a warm temperature.
All of the balloons were first placed in a room measured to be at 78° Fahrenheit. Their “starting circumferences were measured and used as a basis for noticing any further changes. The first balloon measured 83.5 cm around it’s fullest section, the second 83.8 cm, and the third at 83.2 cm. Results

All of the balloons were first placed in a room measured to be at 78° Fahrenheit. Their “starting circumferences were measured and used as a basis for noticing any further changes. The first balloon measured 83.5 cm around it’s fullest section, the second 83.8 cm, and the third at 83.2 cm.
The balloons were then placed in a freezer, set at 0° Fahrenheit for one hour. After one hour, each balloon was measured. The first balloon came in at 81.4 cm, the second at 83.0 cm and the third at 81.0 cm. After being set out for twenty minutes to return to room temperature, the balloons were then placed in a vehicle in the middle of a hot, humid day. The balloons were left outside for ten minutes and measured immediately after those ten minutes were up. The first balloon measured 83.5 cm, the second at 84.1 cm, and the third at 83.4 cm. Discussion and Conclusion

After completing the experiment, and interpreting the Ideal Gas Law, which includes how molecules or atoms collide with the edge of a container, such as they did in my experiment, I was satisfied with the results. Their kinetic energy increased and decreased with the hot and cold temperatures respectively, with no drastic exceptions. The hypothesis made before the experiment was correct.
Future experiments along the same lines could be improved by utilizing a heavier freezer, one capable of going well below zero. Placing the balloons inside of a greenhouse in the middle of a hot summer day would be effective as well.
In conclusion, the balloon experiment was a simple and informational procedure. Any parent would enjoy completing this with their child and reinforce the concepts being taught in their own science class. The balloons were then placed in a freezer, set at 0° Fahrenheit for one hour. After one hour, each balloon was measured. The first balloon came in at 81.4 cm, the second at 83.0 cm and the third at 81.0 cm. After being set out for twenty minutes to return to room temperature, the balloons were then placed in a vehicle in the middle of a hot, humid day. The balloons were left outside for ten minutes and measured immediately after those ten minutes were up. The first balloon measured 83.5 cm, the second at 84.1 cm, and the third at 83.4 cm. See table 1.1 on page 5. Average kinetic energy is effected by temperature changes. When the temperature increases, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules also increases, pushing the balloon out and giving it a puffier appearance due to the heat, which makes gas molecules move quicker and expand more rapidly than at room temperature. When placed in a cold environment, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules are lowered, and the molecules inside slow down significantly. The molecules then contract and give the balloon a saggy look. All of this can be explained by the Ideal Gas Law, which says that all interactions between atoms or molecules are completely elastic, such as when they are expanded or retracted within a balloon. The Ideal Gas Law can be determined using the formula PV=nRT=nKT. In this equation n equals the number of moles, R equals the universal cas constant, and N equals the number of molecules. To begin, each balloon was blown up until they were nearly full and marked with a 1, 2, or 3. Next, each was measured at room temperature (78° Fahrenheit). The first balloon was recorded at 83.5 cm around it’s fullest section, the second at 83.8 cm, and the third at 83.2 cm. Then, each balloon was placed in a freezer (0° Fahrenheit) for one hour. Once one hour had passed, all three were measured. Each balloon subsequently decreased in circumference. Balloon 1 was recorded at 81.4 cm: a 2.1 cm difference. Balloon 2 was recorded at 83.0 cm: a .8 cm difference. Lastly, balloon 3 was recorded at 81.0 cm: a 2.2 cm difference. Each balloon was allowed a 20 minute period to return to room temperature. After 20 minutes, each balloon was then placed in a vehicle at four in the afternoon on a hot, humid day. The temperature inside the vehicle reached an astounding 136.4° Fahrenheit. The balloons were left inside for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes elapsed each balloon was measured once again. Balloon 1 was recorded at 83.5 cm: a 0 cm difference. Balloon 2 was recorded at 84.1 cm: a .3 cm increase. Balloon 2 was recorded at 83.4 cm: a .2 cm increase. The results were surprisingly within a tight range. No balloon increased or decreased more than 2.2 cm in comparison to their respective starting circumferences.
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