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John Watson

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Caroline Headley

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of John Watson

Life and Milestones
John Watson
Behaviorism
"Little Albert" Experiment
-Showed evidence of classical conditioning in humans--Watson believed humans could be conditioned to fear

-Studied carried out by Watson and his assistant, Rosalie Rayner at Johns Hopkins University

-Through the experiment, Watson conditioned baby Albert to fear a mouse by making a loud noise

Psychological Care of Infant and Child
Published in 1928
Adopted what could be called a "tough love" approach to raising a child
Watson believed children should be treated as young adults
Warns against parents providing too much love
Believed children should be treated with respect yet should not be cuddled or coddled
Argues for the nature side of the "nature/nurture" debate
Raised his own children with this approach and publicly admitted later in life that he regretted the advice he had given on raising children
Overview
Baby Albert
Method
References
Bergmann, G. (1956). The Contribution of John B. Watson. Psychological Review, 265-276.

Bigelow, K. M., & Morris, E. K. (2001). John b. watson's advice on child rearing: some historical context. Behavioral Developmental Bulletin, 1,.

Fosnot, C. T., & Perry, R. S. (1996). Constructivism: A psychological theory of learning. Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practice, 8-33.

"John B. Watson". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Retrieved 2013-11-10

Jones, M. C. (1974). Albert, Peter and John B. Watson. American Psychologist, 181-183.




O'Donnell, J. M. (1985). The origins of behaviorism. New York: New York University Press.

Pastorino, E.E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. M. (2011). What Is Psychology?
Cengage Learning. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Publishing.

Standridge, M.. (2002). Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved <insert date>, from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/

Simpson, J. C. (2000, April). It's all in the upbringing. John Hopkins Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.jhu.edu/jhumag/0400web/35.html

Videos:
www.Education-portal.com

Behaviorism 101 video created by Vanessa Monaghan, Claire Whitehead, Catherine Lonegan and Ciara McDonnell

*All images uploaded on Prezi from google images

The term
behaviorism
was coined with John B. Watson, who believed that if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists needed to measure only what they were able to observe. Behaviorism does not measure internal thoughts or emotions, it only focuses on what can be seen.
Behaviorism is based on the idea that every behavior can be learned, through either positive reinforcement or positive punishment. Positive reinforcement is the idea that people will continue to do good things if they are rewarded for their good deeds. Positive punishment is giving a punishment when someone does something bad so they do not repeat the behavior.
Behaviorists believe that development occurs over a long time and there are no specific stages.
Behaviorists believe that people learn through conditioning. There are two types of conditioning. Operant (Skinner) and Classical Conditioning (Pavlov).
Effects on Education
-11 Months old

-Had no fear of rats before experiment, even reached out to pet it

-After the experiment, Albert showed fear of rats and most other "furry stimuli" including dogs, rabbits, and a Santa beard.

-Watson and Rayner did not attempt to undo the phobia they created in Albert

-There is much controversy and little knowledge about what happened with Albert, sadly he died at the age of 6 due to hydrocephalus

Behaviorism is often called the Learning Theory.
People who use behaviorism in their classroom often believe that people learn the correct responses through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. Behaviorism often explains more about behavior than cognitive growth.

Behaviorism uses external motivation to reward the students for example, you do well you get a sticker.
-Introduced Albert to a rat, Albert was not afraid at first.

-When Albert reached for the rat, Watson banged a loud steel bar with a hammer, creating a loud noise that made the baby scared and cry.

-They continued doing this until Albert showed signs of fear for the rat without the sound.

-This acquired fear is called
conditioned emotional reaction
Time Line
"From the Beginning"
1878 ~ John Broadus Watson was born in Greenville, South Carolina.
1899 ~ John graduated from Furman University.
1901 ~ John majored in psychology and minored in philosophy and neurology at the University of Chicago. He married Mary Ikes.
1903 ~ John B. Watson received his doctorate from the University of Chicago.
1905 ~ Dr. Watson's first child, Mary, was born. He enrolled at John Hopkins University
1906 ~ Watson was hired as an instructor at the University of Chicago
1907 ~ Watson was hired as an associate professor of psychology at John Hopkins University. It was at JHU that he became known as the Founder of Behaviorism.
1913 ~ Watson gave the lecture and published the article entitled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It."
1914 ~ He published Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology.
Time Line
"To the End"
1915 ~ Watson became the President of the American Psychological Association.
1916 ~ Dr. Watson began his study on mental illnesses. He began working in advertising at the J Walter Thompson Agency.
1919 ~ Watson published Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorists.
1920 ~ Watson was dismissed from John Hopkins University. He published the "Little Albert" Experiment. He turned his focus to advertising.
1924 ~ Watson became Vice President of J Walter Thompson Agency. He published Behaviorism.
1928 ~ Watson published the Psychological Care of Infant and Child.
1945 ~ He retired as Vice President of William Esty Agency.
1958 ~ Dr. John Broadus Watson burnt all of his unpublished works and died a short time later.

In 1878 John Broadus Watson was born to Emma and Pickens Watson. A poor family in Greenville, South Carolina, his mother was very religious. John's father however, drank, had extra-marital affairs, and left in 1891. Eventually John married Mary Ikes whom he met at the University of Chicago.
Together they had two children, Mary and John. Like his father, John had affairs with a number of women. John and Mary finally divorced and he married one of his graduate students, Rosalie Rayner. They had two more children, James and William.
John focused much of his study of "behaviorism" on his children. After Rosalie's death, he lived on a farm in Connecticut until his death in 1958.
"Whoa what a life"
Famous Quote From John Watson
"Never hug and kiss them, never let them sit on your lap. If you must, kiss them once on the forehead when they say good night. Shake hands with them in the morning."
Nevid, J.S. (2010). Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications: Concepts and Applications. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
-Watson proved humans could be conditioned into exhibiting certain actions and/or feelings
-Behaviorists are concerned with predicting and controlling behavior
-
Effects on education:
-Behaviorists believe behaviors are learned, so we must teach children about rules and expectations
-Teachers should use appropriate consequences and rewards to promote positive behavior and stifle negative behavior
-As the Little Albert experiment proved, we have to be very careful about negatively influencing young children, as fears and phobias may last a lifetime
Full transcript