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Post-Classical Asia WHAP
Transcript of Post-Classical Asia WHAP
Founded by Yuan Jian (aka Wendi) who focused on nomadic military alliance rather than scholar-gentry class.
Surplus gain and low taxes
Yangdi murdered his father to rule
Promoted Confucian scholar-gentry.
Built the Grand Canal for trade and military movement.
Unsuccessful wars against Korea led to rebellions, and end of Sui.
Li Yuan formed Tang dynasty from end of Sui. His son, Tang Taizong first main ruler.
Brought back Imperial Admin based on Confucian civil service exam w/ Ministry of Rites.
scholar gentry > aristocracy
Gov't and Popular support/conversion to Buddhism
Pure land Buddhism (Mahayana) emphasized salvation, popular among mainstream Chinese society.
Chan Buddhism (Zen in JP) stressed meditation and artistic beauty, popular among elite. Goal= ultimate wisdom and release from rebirth.
Emp. Wu biggest supporter; tried to elevate Buddh to state religion. Emp Wuzong biggest persecutor.
Emp Xuanzong was strong, but he gave his
Yang Guifei too much power leading to rebellions and her execution. No strong leader after --> rebellions.
Zhao Kuangyin founded Song dynasty.
Had constant threat from nomadic tribes and Khitan peoples in the Liao Dynasty.
Had to spend a lot of $ on tributes, which put constant stress on peasants in taxes and military (1 mill)
Confucianism makes a complete comeback in the Song with an overinflated bureaucracy filled with administrators. Song gov't focused more on intellectual pursuits than military, leaving northern borders weak.
Neo-Confucianism: started by Zhu Xi this emphasized tradition and hostility to foreign systems. Also reinforced gender distinctions- male dominance.
Wang Anshi, a confucian scholar started to fix the problems of the Song, but when a new conservative emperor came, it stopped.
New invadors in the nomadic Jurchens drove the Song to the Southern Song Dynasty.
Tang and Song Culture
Yamato clan c. 400- first and only dynasty to rule JP. Fun fact: current emperor Akihito is a descendent of same clan.
Shinto religion: "the way of the gods" worship the kami, nature and all the forces of nature, w/ goal is to become a part of the kami by following certain rituals and customs.
CH infl. JP in 522 w/ Buddh monks. JP follows both religions.
Prince Shotuki modeled his Taika Reforms after CH bur & legal reforms. Attempted to create bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
JP largely rejected Confuc. b/c rank thru birth was more important to them.
Heian Period: Fujiwara clan intermarried Yamamoto clan and ran the country. Real power shifted from the emperor, now seen as figurehead.
Shogun: military leader, held real power in JP
Daimyo: landed elite who were samurai
Samurai: part warrior, part nobility. Lived by code of Bushido.
*Women lost status w/ Feudal system (unlike Eur)
Silla Dynasty established a tribute system with Tang CH. They sent emissaries to the royal court and paid tribute to remain at peace with CH.
Led to sinification- adapting of CH culture.
Chan Buddhism is the sponsored religion. Aristocrats keep Confucianism from becoming popular.
Korean expansion of innovations
improved moveable type
Pre-CH: Viet women had many rights and were well esteemed.
Tang CH will institute a tribute system with Viet, although the Viet will actively work for their independence.
Reluctantly adopt Confucian schools.
Trade system estbl b/t CH and VT
Trung sisters revolt- shows unrest and role of women in Viet.
When Tang fall, Viet will be independent until those pesky French arrive.
Trinh (N) vs. Nguyen (S) fight for control until French dominance.
Prefer Buddhism to Confucianism in terms of women's rights.
AP World History
Moveable Type- increase in literacy and bureaucrats from lower class.
Grand Canal- connected N/S agricultural lines. Also worked as a way to control the large empire efficiently.
Junks- best ships in the world at this time- rudders, compasses, fenders. CH merchants became dominant force in Asian seas.
Flying Money- CH credit vouchers; early form of currency.
Gunpowder- started to be used in primitive weapons.
Magnetic Compass- the most important invention for exploration/trade/anything on water.
Champa- fast-ripening rice from Vietnam led to rapid population growth, more than doubled to 115 mill in 1200.
Footbinding- widespread practice done shortly after birth in an effort to keep feet small. Large feet were considered masculine and ugly. Also a way to show women's role in neo-Confucian Song.
Li Bo- famous Tang poet, blended mundane world w/ philosophical ideas.