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Intro to Passivhaus

An exploration of the Passivhaus model of energy intelligence in buildings.
by

Rob Harrison AIA

on 23 May 2012

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Transcript of Intro to Passivhaus

? SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over average US EUI source of 76.6.
Courtland Place Passive Project, Dan Whitmore
::walls: R-55
::floors: R-20 to 49
::roof: R-76
::windows: U=0.18 to 0.22 also known as Passive House well-proven PASSIVHAUS predictable cost-effective OK. What IS Passivhaus? A Passive House is a very well-insulated, virtually air-tight building that is primarily heated by passive solar gain and by internal gains from people, electrical equipment, etc. Energy losses are minimized. Any remaining heat demand is provided by an extremely small source. Avoidance of heat gain through shading and window orientation also helps to limit any cooling load, which is similarly minimized. An energy recovery ventilator provides a constant, balanced fresh air supply. The result is an impressive system that not only saves up to 90% of space heating costs, but also provides terrific indoor air quality and superior comfort. comfortable Only Three Requirements Space heating or cooling demand must be less than 4.75 kBtu/square foot/year.

Primary energy demand must be less than 38 kBtu/square foot/year.

Less than 0.6 air changes per hour when measured at 50 Pascal with a blower door test. PHPP Passivhaus Planning Package How is it done? low surface to volume ratio
additional insulation
high performance windows
no thermal bridges
careful attention to air sealing
heat recovery ventilation
optimized with PHPP software http://www.passipedia.passiv.de/
http://passivehouse.us/
http://phnw.org/
http://harrisonarchitects.com/passive_house
http://minibpassivehouse.com/
http://www.bruteforcecollaborative.com/
http://passivehousecentral.us/ Passivhaus is NOT... Passivhaus is not "passive solar." Passivhaus is not "net zero energy." Passivhaus is not just houses. Passivhaus is not a comprehensive set of green strategies. Passivhaus is not "net zero energy." Passivhaus is not "passive solar." Passivhaus is not a comprehensive set of green strategies. Passivhaus is not just houses. Adaptation Suffering Mitigation NOT LEED Platinum Why Not Passivhaus? Priority Green
incrementalism vs a direct leap
Community Power Works: on bill financing
Zoning Issues for Retrofits
Yesler Terrace Redevelopment A Few Links WHY That's measured according to the German TUV method (DIN-277), which measures to the inside of the walls, doesn't count the area of interior walls, storage areas or stairs above a certain height. For many buildings this means a net area ~20% less than the gross square footage. Therefore Passivhaus heating demand measured against GSF actually ends up ~20% less than 4.75 kBTU/SF/year. Primary energy (aka "source" energy") includes heating, cooling, appliances, plug loads—everything. In Passivhaus, an energy factor is applied to account for losses in generation and transmission. Just to give you an idea: An old house might test at >7.0 ACH@50, a typical new house more like 5.0 ACH@50, and an energy-efficient house built with attention to air sealing in the 2.0 ACH@50 range. Getting to 0.6 ACH@50 requires careful detailing by the designer and rigorous follow-through by the builder. With such a tight building proper ventilation is a must. Code-required ventilation rates for standard houses assume a much leakier envelope, and require a lower amount of ventilation than Passivhaus does. They assume that extra "fresh" air is coming in through the cracks...like through the floor from the crawlspace...down through the insulation in the attic...around the edges of the windows....(Ick!)

Of course, in a Passivhaus you can open the windows too. It's not THAT German. Yesler Terrace Redevelopment In the last 20 years, 25,000 to 30,000 Passivhaus buildings have been built in Western Europe.
Passivhaus will be code in the EU in 2012, and code in the UK in 2013. population CO2 emissions business as usual --> fully engaged Our response to climate change will involve three aspects: We decide now what proportion of each we (and subsequent generations) will experience. FIRE STATION
PH = 78% reduction over average US source EUI of 157 kBTU/ft2/yr.
Feuerwehr Wolfurt, HEIN-TROY ARCHITEKEN
::walls: R-37
::floor: R-43
::roof: R-57
::windows: U-0.14 HIGH SCHOOL
PH = 60% reduction over average US source EUI of 85.3.
Hauptschule Klaus, Dietrich|Untertrifaller Architekten
::walls: R-51
::floors: R-32
::roof: R-51
::windows: R-7.3
::n50=0.5ACH50 KINDERGARTEN
PH = 60% reduction over average US source EUI of 85.3.
Kindergarten Max und Moritz, Architekturbuero Wamsler
::walls: R-51
::floors: R-40
::roof: R-56
::windows: U=0.125
::n50=0.29ACH50 COMMUNITY CENTER
PH = 76% reduction over average US source EUI of 143.
Gemeindezentrum St. Gerold, cukrowicz.nachbaur architekten
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-36
::roof: R-47
::windows: R-5.2
::n50=0.5ACH50 COLLEGE, NON-DORMITORY
US EUI, source: 280 PH = 88% reduction
Bagley Nature Center, Salmela Architects
Duluth, MN
::walls: R-64
::floors: R-53
::roof: R-85
::n50=0.47ACH50 HOSPITAL
PH = 87% reduction over average US source EUI of 263.
Stadtspital Triemli, Aeschlimann Prêtre Hasler Architekten MULTIFAMILY
US EUI, source: 99.4 PH = 66% reduction
Lodenareal Apartments, architekturwerkstatt din a4
::walls: R-44
::floors: R-47
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.13
::n50=0.2ACH50 MULTIFAMILY
PH = 64% reduction over average US source EUI of 94.3.
Triplex in Bern, Halle 58 Architekten
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-57
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.167 SINGLE-FAMILY
US EUI, source: 76.6 PH = 56% reduction
Farm + Forest Passivhaus, HARRISON architects
Eatonville, WA
::walls: R-48
::floors: R-48
::roof: R-79
::windows: U=0.19 SINGLE-FAMILY
US EUI, source: 76.6 PH = 56% reduction
Bonaparte Cabin Passivhaus, HARRISON architects
Okanogan Highlands, WA
::walls: R-69
::floors: R-96
::roof: R-102
::windows: U=0.11 eg: reduction of carbon emissions through:
energy conservation (Passivhaus, Living Building Challenge)
distributed clean energy production (solar, wind, geothermal)
urban density (reducing transportation energy) eg: responding to climate disruption by:
relocation of affected populations
seawalls, dikes, flood control
food crop changes
development of vaccines eg: affects of unmitigated climate disruption:
climate refugees
storms, flooding
famine
disease
economic impacts of all of the above Rob Harrison AIA
www.harrisonarchitects.com The gross square footage of the building is 52,000 SF.
The current energy use index (EUI) is 16.
The treated floor area (based on the German DIN 277-2 method) is 39,050 SF.
The limit in Passivhaus for Primary Energy is 38 kBTU/SF/yr.

In Passivhaus, an "energy factor" is applied to various forms of energy to account for generation and transmission losses. For electricity, this factor is 2.7.

Solving for an EUI that would meet Passivhaus:

38 kBTU/SF/yr ÷ 2.7 = 14.07 kBTU/SF/yr. (gives us an annual Primary Energy usage target, taking the electrical energy factor into account.)

39,050 SF (TFA) x 14.07 = 549,434 kBTU/SF/yr (gives us the site annual energy usage using TFA for a building that met Passivhaus)

549,434 kBTU/SF/yr ÷ 52,000 (GSF) = 10.57 (gives us the EUI target for a building that met Passivhaus.)

The building as designed has an EUI of 16. A building that met Passivhaus would have an EUI of 10.5, and would use 66% of the energy of the Cascadia Center as currently designed.

Or, looking at it the other way:

52,000 GSF x 16 (current EUI) = 832,000 kBTU/yr (total annual Primary Energy usage)

Solve for kBTU/SF/yr using TFA.

832,000 kBTU/yr ÷ 39,050 SF (TFA) = 21.3 kBTU/SF/yr

Multiply that by 2.7 (the energy factor for electricity) to get the primary energy usage.

21.3 kBTU/SF/yr x 2.7 = 57.52 kBTU/SF/yr

Passivhaus requires an annual primary energy usage (source energy) of 38 kBTU/SF/yr.

The building as designed exceeds the Passivhaus standard for Primary Energy by a bit over 50%. SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6
Greenlake Passive House, Heliotrope Architects
::walls: R-46
::floors: R-47 over garage, R20.5 over basement non-PH heated space
::roof: R-78
::windows: U=0.07 (low SHGC) and U.11 (high SHGC) SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6
Mini-B Passive House, Joe Giampietro, Johnson-Braund Design Group
Seattle, WA
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-70
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.11 - 0.18
15% of the heat loss of a 2009 WA State Energy Code-compliant house of the same size and window area; an 85% reduction in heat loss. OFFICE BUILDING
PH = 64% reduction over average US source EUI of 93.6.
Biotop, Architekturbüro Reinberg
::walls: R-31
::floors: R-30
::roof: R-51
::windows: U=0.18 OFFICE BUILDING
PH = 64% reduction over average US source EUI of 93.6.
Biotop, Architekturbüro Reinberg
::walls: R-31
::floors: R-30
::roof: R-51
::windows: U=0.18 OFFICE BUILDING
PH = 64% reduction over average US source EUI of 93.6.
Biotop, Architekturbüro Reinberg
::walls: R-31
::floors: R-30
::roof: R-51
::windows: U=0.18 HIGH SCHOOL
PH = 60% reduction over average US source EUI of 85.3.
Hauptschule Klaus, Dietrich|Untertrifaller Architekten
::walls: R-51
::floors: R-32
::roof: R-51
::windows: R-7.3
::n50=0.5ACH50 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6
Mini-B Passive House, Joe Giampietro, Johnson-Braund Design Group
Seattle, WA
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-70
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.11 - 0.18
15% of the heat loss of a 2009 WA State Energy Code-compliant house of the same size and window area; an 85% reduction in heat loss. FIRE STATION
PH = 78% reduction over average US source EUI of 157 kBTU/ft2/yr.
Feuerwehr Wolfurt, HEIN-TROY ARCHITEKEN
::walls: R-37
::floor: R-43
::roof: R-57
::windows: U-0.14 COMMUNITY CENTER
PH = 76% reduction over average US source EUI of 143.
Gemeindezentrum St. Gerold, cukrowicz.nachbaur architekten
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-36
::roof: R-47
::windows: R-5.2
::n50=0.5ACH50 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6.
Corona Gardens Passive House, Terrapin Architecture (Jesse Thomas)
Port Townsend, WA
::walls: R-49
::floors: R-44
::roof: R-59
::windows: U=0.21 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6.
Freas House, Artisans Group
::walls: R-
::floors: R-
::roof: R-
::windows: U=0.11 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6.
North House, Artisans Group
Olympia, WA
::walls: R-
::floors: R-
::roof: R-
::windows: U=0.17 MULTIFAMILY
PH = 64% reduction over average US source EUI of 94.3.
Triplex in Bern, Halle 58 Architekten
::walls: R-52
::floors: R-57
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.167 SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
PH = 56% reduction over US average source EUI of 76.6
Greenlake Passive House, Heliotrope Architects
::walls: R-46
::floors: R-47 over garage, R20.5 over basement non-PH heated space
::roof: R-78
::windows: U=0.07 (low SHGC) and U.11 (high SHGC) SINGLE-FAMILY
PH = 56% reduction over average US source EUI of 94.3.
Corehaus, Robert Hawthorne, Architect
Portland, OR
::walls: R-44
::floors: R-36
::roof: R-88
::windows: U=0.11 - 0.16 SINGLE-FAMILY
PH = 56% reduction over average US source EUI of 94.3.
Corehaus, Robert Hawthorne, Architect
Portland, OR
::walls: R-44
::floors: R-36
::roof: R-88
::windows: U=0.11 - 0.16 SINGLE-FAMILY
PH = 56% reduction over average US source EUI of 94.3.
Everhart Futurefitting, Tad Everhart, CPHC
Portland, OR
::walls: R-50
::floors: R-56
::roof: R-85
::windows: U=0.14 - 0.17 MULTIFAMILY
US EUI, source: 99.4 PH = 66% reduction
Lodenareal Apartments, architekturwerkstatt din a4
::walls: R-44
::floors: R-47
::roof: R-52
::windows: U=0.13
::n50=0.2ACH50 www.passipedia.org www.passipedia.org www.passivehouse.us www.bruteforcecollaborative.com www.millerhull.com 93.6 57.5 38 16 10.5 34.7 Passive House Consultants nine-day intensive training
exam
certified by PHIUS How are they qualified? What do PH consultants do? run PHPP
optimize assemblies
develop envelope details
recommend products & materials www.bruteforcecollaborative.com ~1,500 certified Passive House Consultants in the world.
~200 in the US.
~22 in WA State. A Different Paradigm Conventional Approach
(in a temperate area) Conventional Approach
(in a cold area) Passivhaus
(in a temperate area) Passivhaus
(in a cold area) With Passivhaus on the other hand, the "furnace" stays the same size, and the building envelope varies. With the conventional approach, the building envelope (insulation & windows) stays (more or less) the same and the size of the "furnace" varies to suit the heat loss. What will your choice be? Living Building Challenge BuiltGreen : LEED : Passivhaus
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