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AS revision Day
Transcript of AS revision Day
Biological Psychology: (Stress)
Individual Differences (Abnormal Psychology) All questions range from 1 mark to 12 marks. What we shall do today Quizes
Past paper questions
Recap of material
Exam technique 1) To refresh your brains:
A quick quiz......... 2) What theory did Seyle develop? 3. What are the three stages of the GAS? 4. What words are associated with the Alarm stage? 5. Resistance stage? 6. Exhaustion stage? 7. There is a clear link between stress and illness?
Which two researcher tell us this? 8. What did Cohen do? 9. What did Kielcolt Glaser do? 10. How do we measure stress? 11. Describe three criticisms of the SRRS. 12. What are two sources of stress in the workplace? 13. Who investigated decicion lattitude? 14. What did Marmot do? 15. Which two personalities are more likley to suffer from stress? 16. How did Friedman and Rosenman investigate personality and stress? 17. Who investigated hardiness and stress? 18. Which personality type is a better predicter of illness and why? 19. How do we measure someones stress coping style? 20. What are the two styles of coping identified by the COPE questionnaire? 21. What are two emotion focused ways of coping? 22. What are two problem focused ways of coping. 23. Identify 5 findings about coping styles. 26. How would you cope with stress psychologically? 27. What key words would you use when describing C.B.T.? 28. How would you cope with stress physiologically? 29. What are the key words associated with Benzodiazepines? 30. What are the key words associated with Beta blockers? There are three styles of questions: Short answer (like the quiz
Evaluative. Applied questions.... For example.... Jane and David are both lawyers. David is always in a rush, often snapping at his secretary when things go wrong. Jane also has a stressful job, but she copes well and has a positive attitude.
With reference to the above outline factors which influence a persons stress response. (6 marks) The examiners want you to be able to apply what
you know about stress to a novel situation. Somtimes
the answer is specific to the scenario. More often your
answer can use all sorts of material......Lets have a go. In pairs you will need a big piece of paper. Why do people get stressed? Around the outside write as many non psychological reasons as you can. Now attach a psychological explanation to the reasons. Did you get these? Some people have a personality type that is prone to stress.
HARDINESS AND TYPE A.
Some people do not have control over their lives.
DECISION LATITUDE - MARMOT
Some people dont have good coping strategies.
PROBLEM/EMOTION focused coping.
Some people have more negative life events than others.
SRRS - LIFE EVENTS SCALE - HOLMES AND RAHE.
Some people have a tendency to view events as stressful.
ATTRIBUTION STYLE - GLOBAL, INTERNAL, STABLE FOR NEGATIVE EVENTS.
There may be more....
If you could do this then you are prepared for 'application' type questions. Evaluative type questions. These always use the word "discuss". for example.... Discuss the use of drugs to manage stress (8 marks) Look at the specification. Put the word Discuss before each item? Would you know what to say? Discuss the life changes approach to stress
Discuss how psychologists have investigated workplace stress.
Discuss personality as an explanation for stress.
Discuss how psychologists have investigated coping strategies and stress.
Discuss the effectiveness of psychological treatments for stress.
Diiscuss the use of drugs to manage stress.
How to cheat (a bit)
For many of these questions there are specific 'bits' of evaluation you should use.
There are also some general evaluation that could be applied to all of them. If you can remember these 'general' bits and how they can be applied to each area you will have plenty to say. General issues in stress:
Correlational research. Ethics:
When you investigate stress it is likley that you will be finding out that individuals are suffering from stress. One of the ethical guidelines is "advice". this means if the researcher has reason to think that someone may be suffering from a psychological problem then they need to offer guidance to the individual when debriefing them. However this may cause some ethical conflicts. For example, psychologists are not doctors, they are not medically trained to diagnose mental or physical diseases. Therefore they may cause considerable distress to the participant. However, not giving them advice might cause harm to the participant. This issue is further complicated if debriefing the participants interfers in the research itself. Lets see how we could use this in a specific area. Discuss the use of Life Events as an explanation for stress
(You should briefly describe Holmes and Rahe)...then.......
One issue raised with this type of research is ethics. It is highly likley that some participants would score highly on the SRRS scale. This raises the problem of whether the researchers sould debrief them to let them know that they are likley to be suffering from high levels of stress, and that stress is also likley to lead to illness. This is because one ethical principle is "Advice". this means that researchers should advise participants if they suspect that their behaviour may cause harm. However researchers are not medically trained to disnose stress related ilnesses. therefore they have to be very sensitive so as not to cause distress to the participant. This issue is also made more difficult in this research as it is longitudenal. This mean that by debriefing the partipants, they may change their behaviour and influence the outcome of the research. Your turn: Take any THREE of the possible DISCUSS questions and
write an "ethics" paragraph. Make sure you do THREE, in FULL, these need to become
automated knowledge!!!!! Issue 2: Reductionism - applied to personality and stress.
Stress is always caused by an interaction of several factors, never just one. Psychological/biological explanations os stress tend to focus on one factor while ignoring the interaction that factor has with other factors. For example, although there does seem to be a strong link between personality and stress the explanations in this area ignore the interactions of other factors such as poverty, conditions in the workplace or how much social support is available to the individual. For example although not having a hardy personality is associated with stress this might only apply to people who have limited or poor quality friendships or work in an unsupportive work environment. In other words a hardy personality may only be helpful in some circumstances but not others. Same thing - apply this to three other possible "discuss" questions. Issue 3: Determinism - Applied to personality and stress.
Most explanations for stress suggest that stress is determined by factors beyond our control. In other words we do not have free will. For example, people with particular personalities are more likley to suffer from stress. As we do not 'decide' on our personality we therefore have little control over whether we become stressed. However we could argue that there is an element of free will in our response to stress. For example an individual with Type A personality is only half as likley to suffer from a heart attack after they have had the first one than a type B (Ragland and Brand). This is because they choose to change thier behaviour (and as they are type A they are more likley to do so). Similarly, individuals are capable (often through therapy) to change how they respond to stress by either changing their thinking or by choosing to learn techniques to reduce stress. this would suggest that we do have some 'free will' over how stress effects us. finally - correlational research
Most stress research is correlational. For example in personality and stress there are correlations between type A and stress and non hardy personalities and stress. The major weakness with this research is that we cannot claim a cause and effect relationship. This is because we either cannot be sure which variable might be the cause and which the effect or because there may be an unknown variable that causes both to change. For example it is tempting to assume that having Type A personality causes stress. However it could be that stress is caused by some other factor and that Type A personality forms as the result of being stressed rather than the other way around. you know what you have to do now!!! Abnormality I've done the revision for stress - you can do it for abnormality!! Activity 1:
Quiz questions - in pairs as many as you can think of!!!!!