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Challenging Behaviors

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Karla Baluch

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of Challenging Behaviors

Understanding and Responding to Challenging Behaviors

Understanding Challenging Behaviors
“Any behavior that interferes with children’s learning and development, is harmful to children and to others, and puts a child at risk for later social problems or school failure.”
Strategies When Dealing With Challenging Behaviors
Approaches to Intervention
Conclusion
What strategies would you include in your "survival kit" when responding to challenging behaviors?
Approaches to Intervention
Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS)
PBIS is a framework or approach for assisting schools in "adopting and organizing evidence-based behavioral interventions into an integrated continuum that enhances academic and social behavior outcomes for all students."
Response to Intervention (RTI)
"RTI is a framework that integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavioral problems."
Responsive Classroom
An approach that offers principles and practices designed to bolster children's academic, social, and emotional growth by integrating social and academic learning
The approach offers clear expectations for behavior and actively teaches children how to live up to those expectations
Uses respectful strategies to stop misbehavior and restore positive behavior as quickly as possible
Tertiary (individual, 1-5%)
Intensive behavior support
Secondary (some, 5-10%)
Targeted interventions to support students who are not responding to primary prevention efforts and at risk for more serious problem behavior
Primary (all, 80-90%)
School wide system designed to address the needs of most students through a universal system of positive behavior support
Morning meeting
Guided discovery
Academic choice
Modeling
Role-playing
Quiet time
Establishing rules
Logical consequences
Stop the behavior
Visual and verbal cues
Increased teacher proximity
Use logical consequences
Relevant, realistic, and respectful
You break it, you fix it
Loss of privilege
Time-out
Schools use data to identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, and provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity based on student's responsiveness.
Essential Components of RTI
RTI and PBIS
Components
Responding to Misbehavior
Multi-tier Model
1.) Identification and Referral
Teacher submits a Multi-Purpose Referral form to Student Support Team (SST) *
Who is in the SST?
Local Screening Committee (LSC)
2.) Evaluation
Evaluations to be done for LSC include:
Psychological
Academic achievement test
Evaluation of child family history
Once consent is signed to test a child, the law requires the testing be completed within 65 days
An Eligibility meeting must take place within the 65 days
The school psychologist meets with parents to go over, in detail, the results of the test
The school team meets to go over the test results and add 3 new work samples for the child


3.) Eligibility Meeting
Who is in the Eligibility team?
Parent
Student’s teacher
Principal or another administrator
Special education teacher
School psychologist
Reviews the test findings
Determine if the student meets the criteria for special education services based on the criteria within Basis of Committee Decision (BCD) handbook
All the committee members must agree and sign off on the special education eligibility form
1.) Identification and Referral
2.) Evaluation
3.) Eligibility Meeting
4.) Develop an Individual Education Program
Procedure in School System for Referring a Student
4.) Develop an Individual Education Program
If the student is found eligible for special education services, an Individual Education Program (IEP) must be written to meet the needs of the student
The IEP is rewritten every year

NOTES
Even though parent consent is not required for a teacher to refer a student to the SST—the teacher will let the parents know their concerns and that they are referring the student
If parents refer their own child, the SST process is skipped and the student goes directly to the LSC
If needed, Functional Behavior Analysis and Behavior Intervention Plan can be added to the IEP

If the LSC determines a formal evaluation is needed, written parent permission is REQUIRED to continue.
Who is in the LSC?
***Teacher submits a new Multi-Purpose Referral form
Student’s teacher
Principal or another administrator
School social worker
School psychologist
Special education teacher
What does the LSC do?
Reviews information
Work samples
Observational notes
Educational history
Exposure to multiple languages
Possible cultural, economic, environmental, and/or medical disadvantages
Performance compared to a typical developing child
LSC determines if...
Classroom modifications need to be made
Further monitoring is required
504 plan should be considered based on mental or physical disabilities
A formal evaluation is needed to determine special education services
Student’s teacher
Principal or other administrator
School social worker
School psychologist
What does the SST do?
Reviews information provided by teacher
Intervention strategies tried
Observational notes
3 dated work samples from the area of concern
Suggests new intervention strategies to be tried for 6 weeks (Response to Intervention)
After 6 weeks, team reconvenes to discuss the outcome
The committee then decides to
Determine if more interventions are appropriate
Recommend further evaluation by the Local Screening Committee
What does the Eligibility team do?
3 Frameworks/Approaches Commonly Used in the School System
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS)
Responsive Classroom
Working Collaboratively
What are challenging behaviors?
(Kaiser & Rasminsky, 2007)
Examples
Hyperactivity
Aggression
Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB’s)

It is “well documented that social emotional competence during the early childhood years is predictive of positive social and school outcomes in elementary school and beyond. Children who can communicate their needs and emotions in appropriate ways, form relationships with peers and adults, solve social problems, and control their emotions are more likely to be successful in school.”
(DEC, 2007)
Culturally, Linguistically, and Ability Diverse Learners (CLAD)
Knowing what the rules or expected behavior in the classroom can be difficult if you don’t understand what the teacher or your classmates are saying
Challenging or problem behaviors may occur out of frustration

English Language Learners (ELL)
Ability Diverse Learners
Variety of factors may be at play
Communication difficulty
Sensory processing
Hyperactivity
Inattention
The nature of the disability itself may lend to challenging behaviors, especially in the classroom: DD, ASD, ADHD, SLD, TBI

Culturally Diverse Learners
Expectations in the school environment can vary greatly among cultures
American culture vs. other cultures

(National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010)
(Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2014)
References
Anderson, C. M. & Spaulding, S. A. (2007). Using positive behavior support to design effective classrooms.
Beyond Behavio
r,
16
(2), 27-31.

Brady, K., Forton, M. B., & Porter, D. (2011).
Rules in school: Teaching discipline in the Responsive Classroom
. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children, Inc.

DEC, NAEYC, & National Head Start Association (NHSA). (2013). Frameworks for response to intervention in early childhood: Description and Implications.

Denton, P., & Kriete, R. (2000).
The first six weeks of school
. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children, Inc.

Division for Early Childhood (DEC). (2007).
Concept paper: Identification of and intervention with challenging behavior
. Missoula, MT: DEC.

Fairbanks, S., Simonsen, B, & Sugai, G. (2008). Classwide secondary and tertiary tier practices and systems.
Teaching Exceptional Children
,
40
(6), 44-52.

Hemmeter, M., Ostrosky, M., & Corso, R. (2012). Preventing and addressing challenging behavior: Common questions and practical strategies.
Young Exceptional Children
, 15, 32-46.

Kaiser, B., & Rasminsky, J. S. (2007).
Challenging behavior in young children: understanding, preventing, and responding effectively
. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/behavior-supports/schoolwidebehavior

National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010).
Essential components of RTI: A closer look at Response to Intervention
. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.

Sayeski, K., & Brown, M. (2011). Developing a classroom management plan using a tiered approach.
Council for Exceptional Children
, 44, 8-17.

Sugai, G. (2009). School-wide Positive Behavior Support and Response to Intervention. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/Sugai_2009rSWPBS_RtI%20final_May25_2009.pdf

Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/school

Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Understanding the Virginia regulation governing educational services for gifted students. Richmond: Virginia Department of Education.

Virginia Department of Education, Division of Special Education and Student Services. (2010). Parent's guide to special education. Richmond: Virginia Department of Education.


Acknowledging Positive Behaviors
Informal System
Acknowledgment systems are effective ways to increase prosocial behaviors, create a positive climate, and focus staff and students on positive behaviors.
Critical for creating a positive classroom environment
Positive verbal statements
"Thank you for picking up those paper towels. You are really respecting property!"
Formal System
Clearly specify appropriate behaviors and involve acknowledging those behaviors with predefined rewards
Tangible or intangible rewards
Individual
Classroom "bucks" for exhibiting appropriate behaviors and can turn them in for a reward at the end of the week
Small group
Point system during independent work and team wins extra recess
Whole class
Classroom "bucks" in a jar
Relationship
Environmental
Planning
A positive, nurturing, and supportive relationship
Connect with students and help them develop new skills
Supportive communication and interest in understanding the child’s perspective
Planned ignoring
Positive, descriptive feedback and reinforcement for appropriate behavior
Logical consequences that match the inappropriate behavior

Consistent routines
Clear behavioral expectations
Limiting space/use of materials to reduce misuse of materials
Use nonverbal cues, such as gestures, sign language, and picture prompts especially when working with ELL students
Regrouping students
Home-school note system
Behavior contracts, such as daily or weekly student evaluation

Collaborative goal setting
Extra support during lunch, specials, recess, transitions
Individualizing instruction to meet the needs of the child, base instruction off of their interests
Provide students with choices when a challenging behavior is exhibited
Teacher modeling
Restructuring the activity
Redirection when children are triggered or begin to exhibit challenging behavior

The Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children’s (DEC) position statement emphasizes the critical role that families play in designing and implementing interventions to address challenging behavior (DEC, 2007).
Family Involvement
Families have an influential role in their children’s behavioral management
Collaboration and family involvement is critical to successful behavioral interventions
Understand behavior
Identifying strengths
Specific goals
Choices
Supporting Families
Family partnerships
Develop a plan that is an appropriate fit for the family and environment
Communication, respect, trust, commitment, and equality
Understanding challenging behaviors
Serve to communicate something
Effective strategies
Helping families to develop knowledge and skills to reinforce behavior at home
Behavior plans
Prevention strategies
Teaching replacement skills
Responses to behavior
School Support
Consistency among staff
Other teachers/team members
Special education teachers
School counselor
School psychologist
Administration
(National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010)
(Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2014)
(Sugai, 2009)
Check in Check Out (CICO)
Check in
Check out
During
With adult upon arrival
Adult checks if student is prepared for the day and see how he/she is feeling
Turn in previous day’s signed card
Pick up today’s card
Review goals and provide encouragement to have a great day

Student brings card to teacher, teacher rates and provides feedback
Teacher gives positive comments

Student returns form to adult
Review day’s points and goals, record data
Adult encourages student
Provide reward and problem solve any areas of concern
Takes card home for parent signature

ECE RTI Framework
RTI and PBIS can be combined to provide a school-wide academic and behavioral framework
(DEC, NAEYC, & National Head Start Association, 2013)
“DEC strongly believes that the early identification of children with serious challenging behavior is critical to providing effective interventions that will decrease the likelihood of poor academic and social outcomes.”
(DEC, 2007)
Full transcript