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Inroduction to Advanced Physics

This is a lecture designed to provide an introduction to the exhilarating and mind-bending study of quantum mechanics.

Jesse Austin

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Inroduction to Advanced Physics

Physics Electrons The Nucleus Each atom of every element contains a nucleus with a specific amount of protons and neutrons. P P + + N N The Nucleus The properties and behavior of elements are determined by: Number of protons Number of neutrons Number of electrons Examples: Hg 80 200 6 12 C Protons The Atom Protons determine the type of element. The atomic number of any element indicates how many protons (and electrons) are in that given atom in it's neutral state. Protons contain: 1 Down Quark 2 Up Quarks Up Quarks: 2 x (2/3) Down Quark: 1 x (-1/3) The proton is positive because of its combined quark charges! + = Total Charge: (3/3) 1 u u d Neutrons Neutrons can be added to an element to form isotopes. Since neutrons are electrically neutral, the properties of isotopes remain generally the same as the parent atom. Neutrons contain: 2 Down Quarks 1 Up Quark Up Quark: 1 x (2/3) Down Quark: 2 x (-1/3) The neutron is neutral because of its combined quark charges! + = Total Charge: 0 d u 2 -2 3 3 + d Electrons are tiny particles that occupy orbitals contained within the energy level(s) of an atom's electron cloud. Compared to protons and neutrons, electrons have a relatively miniscule mass: 1 electron = 9.11 x 10 g -28 Unlike the atom, made up of protons and neutrons that are always found in the center of the atom, electrons are distributed equally throughout an electron cloud.

The electron is most likely to appear near the edge of the energy level but its position can be any distance from the nucleus. Electron clouds demonstrate the probability of finding
an electron in different areas around the nucleus. Photons Quantum Decoherence Uncertainty in Science? Yes and no; knowing an electron's position and speed simultaneously is impossible, the more certain one knows an electron's speed: the less certain they are about the electron's position around the nucleus. Schrodinger's Wave Equation Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle All quantum particles and all forms of matter exhibit the same particle/wave duality observed in electrons. However, the larger an object is, the smaller its potential region, and the greater its vulnerability to quantum decoherence. Quantum Physics and Classical Physics Since objects as tiny as electrons have large probability clouds, their position in space is constantly changing. Due to their wave properties, electrons, as well as other quantum particles can actually: Fluctuate in and out of existence. Travel from one place to another along all possible paths. Pass through a barrier via quantum tunneling. Werner Heisenburg Erwin Schrodinger Although this phenomena is extremely unintuitive, the experiments from which scienctists drew these conclusions have confirmed time and time again that these occurrences are observed regularities in the realm of the very small. They are NOT flukes of inept equipment! In other words: very small things operate on the basis of an entirely different set of physical laws! Light Light behaves similarly to electrons. Light behaves like a wave, yet the energy contained in photons is quantized in discrete values. Entanglement When two quantum particles, such as electrons, are created together:
the quantum state of one are ultimately contingent upon that of the other. Superposition All possible arrangements of matter in spacetime exist simultaneously until an observer collapses the wave function, and the set of observed matter behaves independently. The Double Slit Experiment Work Cited Ismael, J. "Quantum mechanics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University, 2000. Web. 19 Mar 2012. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm/>. Confusion If quantum mechanics seems confusing to you, that is okay. Not only does quantum mechanics revamp the laws of physics for particles we cannot see; it also forces us to look at reality in the most unorthodox manner possible! Physics University of Oregon, . "Two-Slit Experiments." Uoregon. University of Oregon, n.d. Web. 20 Mar 2012. <http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec13.html>. Bradt, Steve. "Quantum networks advance with entanglement of photons, solid-state qubits." Harvard Gazette. Harvard Science, 5 August 2010. Web. 23 Mar 2012. <http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/08/quantum-networds-advance-with-entanglement-of-photons-solid-state-qubits/>. Images Question mark: http://knuckleballsblog.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/question-mark.jpg Werner Heisenburg: http://web.gc.cuny.edu/ashp/nml/copenhagen/Heisenberg.jpg Erwin Schrodinger: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_pdPgAWf_DRw/TU5nzMlobyI/AAAAAAAAKgo/Y8XDwx1xAZk/s1600/SCHRODINGER+BOOK.jpg It is confusing to everyone! The Double Slit Experiment: http://www.thephotonist.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/711px-Ebohr1.svg_.png Interference Pattern: http://www.uh.edu/engines/two_slits-b.jpg Scientists such as Albert Einstein have closely studied during the 20 century the puzzling behavior of light. A B After Observation: A B Electrons Before Observation: What wavelength needed to free an electron depends upon the atoms of which the plate is composed, and which energy level the electron appears. Now we know that all energy is, at root, contained in tiny packets that sometimes act like waves. What is extremely stunning is that the particle/wave state of these packets of energy can be affected by ? ? ? ! ! Even if both electrons are separated by great distances: once the spin of electron A is determined, electron B assumes the opposite spin immediately! Nothing can travel faster than light, but there is no delay between the spin gain of electrons A and B. So they are "entangled", or still... connected! mere observation! The Photoelectric Effect When photons are beamed onto a surface, their energy determines how far from, or close to, the nucleus an electron can jump. The energy of the photon, calculated from its frequency and Planck's constant, will correspond to the distances from the nucleus (n=). Example: Electron spin The Double Slit Experiment After a measuring device is placed next to the quantum field, the photons no longer produce an interference pattern! Flashlight: http://www.learnersdictionary.com/art/ld/flashlight.gif Measuring Device: http://cdn100.iofferphoto.com/img/item/101/147/743/DuIsa2i3DW3d7nJ.jpg Quantum mechanics is the only area of scientific study in which the observation of an experiment substantially changes the outcome!
This behavior can also be observed in electrons! "A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics." BestOfScience, 2009. Web. 24 Mar 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7pACq_xWyw>. An electron, for example, can exist in an infinite number of places in the universe because of its superposition. When a conscious observer collapses the wave function of an electron, it takes on a particle property and appears, to that observer, to now exist in only one area. Of course, all of the electron's other potential locations exist as well. They are just not visible to us, because they are part of the electron's wave property. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Observation (Visible electrons are red!) Jesse Austin m 1 - (v . . c ) 2 2 m 0 [Mass in motion] = [Mass at rest] Special Relativity Special Relativity I weigh approximately 77.11kg at rest Perhaps I can sprint 20mph Speed of light: 670, 616, 629mph Calculation! m = 77.11kg 1 - (20 607,616,629 ) . . 2 2 m = 77.11kg 1 - (400 4.4973 10 ) . . x 17 m = 77.11kg 1 - (1.0834 10 ) x -15 m = 77.11kg 1 m = 77.11kg When I travel 20mph, my mass does not change! But what is my mass if I travel 300,000,000mph,
almost half the speed of light? Calculation! m = 88.67kg! 500,000,000mph? Calculation! m = 135.71kg Time and space are woven together. Objects that approach the speed of light get heavier because the excess energy that would further propel the object is instead converted to mass. Also, according to Einstein, traveling near the speed of light can cause time dilation: where the velocity of an object in space is compromised by it's velocity in time and vice versa. In layman terms, what this means is that the faster one moves in space, the slower they can move in time. Unconventional Physics From the Speed of Light Feynman, Richard P., Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands. "The Special Theory of Relativity." The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 1. California: Addison-Wesley, 1963. N. pag. Print. th
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