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Biology Chapter 28 &29 project

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kayla lyons

on 9 April 2015

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 28 &29 project

Biology Chapter 28 & 29 project
My disease
Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in humans and other warm-blooded animals.Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure.These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Once symptoms appear it nearly always results in death.
My disease
Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses including: rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Rabies is spread when an infected animal scratches or bites another animal or human.[1] Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the mouth, nose, or eyes.Overall dogs are the most common animal involved.More than 99% of rabies cases in countries where dogs commonly have the disease are caused by dog bites
The Nervous System in HUMANS
The nervous system consists of two parts:
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, and
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of nerves outside the CNS.
Nerves of the PNS are classified in three ways. First, PNS nerves are classified by how they are connected to the CNS. Cranial nerves originate from or terminate in the brain, while spinal nerves originate from or terminate at the spinal cord.

Second, nerves of the PNS are classified by the direction of nerve propagation. Sensory ( afferent) neurons transmit impulses from skin and other sensory organs or from various places within the body to the CNS. Motor ( efferent) neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles or glands).

Third, motor neurons are further classified according to the effectors they target. The somatic nervous system (SNS) directs the contraction of skeletal muscles. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls the activities of organs, glands, and various involuntary muscles, such as cardiac and smooth muscles.

The autonomic nervous system has two divisions:

The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the stimulation of activities that prepare the body for action, such as increasing the heart rate, increasing the release of sugar from the liver into the blood, and other activities generally considered as fight‐or‐flight responses (responses that serve to fight off or retreat from danger).

The parasympathetic nervous system activates tranquil functions, such as stimulating the secretion of saliva or digestive enzymes into the stomach and small intestine.

Generally, both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems target the same organs, but often work antagonistically. For example, the sympathetic system accelerates the heartbeat, while the parasympathetic system slows the heartbeat. Each system is stimulated as is appropriate to maintain homeostasis.
how it affects the organ systems
Rabies affects the nervous and muscular system by working its way through the body of the host until it reaches the brain of host, inflating the brain of the host and eventually taking control of all muscular controls, this may cause twitching, violent movements, and an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness as well as hallucinations. This disease disrupts homeostasis because it does not allow the signals of the brain to get to the muscles that allow am=nimals to conduct every day life.
Organ system 1
Anatomy of the nervous system in HUMANS
Organ system 1
the nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord from the control center are known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions are made. The sensory nervous system and sense organs of the pheripheral nervous sytem (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.
The Nervous system in JELLYFISH
Organ system 1
The Jelly fish has a nervous system characterized by a series of interconnected nerve cells (a nerve net). This nerve net surrounds the whole body of the jelly fish.
some jelly fish for example the Aurelia, have specialized structures called "Rhopalia". these rhopalia have receptors for :
light (called Ocelli)
balance (called statocysts)
chemical detection (Olfaction)
Touch (called sensory lappets)
When the animal moves and body is tilted, the statocyst makes contact with the cilium. when the cilium bends, it causes action potentials to fire in the nerve. This provides the information to move muscles.
The Muscular System In HUMANS
Organ system 2
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood through out the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through t he nervous system, although some muscles (such as cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous. Paired with the skeletal system, the musculoskeletal system is responsible for movement of the human body.
The Muscular System in HUMANS
Organ system 2
cardiac muscle:
heart muscles are distinct from skeletal because the muscle fibers are laterally connected to eachother. the cardiac muscles are controlled by the sinus node influenced by the autonomic nervous system
smooth muscle:
smooth muscle is controlled directly by the autonomic nervous system and are involuntary, meaning that they are incapeable of being moved by concious thought.
skeletal muscle:
help to support shaope and structure of body
also helps with movement of muscles and limbs

If rabies wiped out the dog population?
if the entire dog population was eliminated, it would actually not have as much affect on the entire ecosystem as a whole, as they are not like cats and catch rodents, or help regulate any population. The dog species have become more and more domesticated as time has progressed, therefore the elimination of Dogs would just result in the over all decrease in pets. As dogs are used for guarding , as well as herding, a wipe out in the dog population would call for another means of herding and protection.
Muscular system in JELLYFISH
Because Jelly fish are extremely simple animals, they lack very complex muscular systems. These animals have a ring of muscle that surrounds the bottom of the bell. the bell is hollow and rounded, this allows for the contraction of muscle, forcing water out of the bell, in order to propel the jelly fish fowards, or backwards.
wrapping it all up
Today I presented to you the disease rabies! I explained how it affected the dog spices and i mainly focused on the two most important organ systems, the nervous system and the muscular system. By presenting these systems to you, i compared them between a human (vertebrae) and a jelly fish (invertebrae ), explaining the anatomy and physiology in both animals of both organisms in both otgan systems. i then described the affects that n extinction of the dog population would have on the ecosystem!
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