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(27) India's Empire and Turkish Empire
Transcript of (27) India's Empire and Turkish Empire
The Mauryan Empire is Established
Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power
In 321 B.C. Chandragupta Maurya seizes power, starts Mauryan Empire
Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North India
Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I; north India is united for the first time
Chandragupta uses taxes to support his large army
Running the Empire
Chandragupta’s chief adviser is Kautilya, a priest
Chandragupta creates a bureaucratic government
He divides the government to make it easier to rule
The Gupta Empire is Established
Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire
Chandra Gupta marries into kingship in north India in A.D. 320
Starts Gupta Empire—India’s second empire; flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture (see next slide)
His son Samudra Gupta expands empire with conquest
Asoka Promotes Buddhism
After a bloody war with Kalinga, Asoka promotes Buddhism and peace
Preaches religious toleration—accepting people of different religions
Builds roads, with wells along them
A Period of Turmoil
The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire
Asoka dies in 232 B.C.; kingdoms in central India soon break away
The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India for centuries
Northern India receives immigrants from Greece and other parts of Asia
Tamils—a people living in southern India—remain separate and frequently war with rival peoples.
Life in the City and the Country
A Greek ambassador writes glowing praise of the empire
Chandragupta’s son rules from 301 to 269 B.C., (32 years)
Aŝoka—Chandragupta’s grandson, brings the empire to its height
Daily Life in India
Majority of Indians are farmers; entire family raises crops together
Families are patriarchal—headed by the eldest male
Farmers have to contribute work to government and pay heavy taxes
Some Tamil families are matriarchal—led by mother rather than father
Height of the Gupta Empire
Chandra Gupta II rules from A.D. 375-415
He defeats the Shakas and adds western coast to empire
Gupta Empire sees flourishing of arts, religion, and science
After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire declines
Achievements of Indian Culture
Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine
Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy
Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that the world is round.
Mathematicians develop the idea of zero and decimal system
Doctors write medical guides and make advances in surgery
The Spread of Indian Trade
India’s Valuable Resources:
India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood
Overland Trade, East and West:
Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and Europe
Indians build trading posts to take advantage of the Silk Roads
Sea Trade, East and West:
Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea
Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia
Turkish Empire Rise in Anatolia
Turkish people convert to Islam and establish new empires that renew Muslim civilization
Decline of the Abbassids:
Powerful Abbasid Empire faces many attacks during 700s and 800s.
Persians conquer Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in 945.
Rise of the Turks
The Conquering Seljuks
Turks are a nomadic group living along western border of China.
Group led by Turkish family—the Seljuks—seizes Baghdad in 1055.
In 1071 Seljuk sultans crush Byzantine Empire at Battle of Manzikert.
Seljuks take most of Anatolia; bring Turks close to Constantinople.
The Turks Secure Persian Support
Turks seek support of Persians and embrace Persian culture.
Give Persians key posts, including that of vizier, or prime minister.
Adopt Persian language and religion—Islam.
Malik Shah was one of the most famous Seljuk rulers, or shahs.
He and other shahs support Persian artists and build mosques.
Seljuks Confront Crusaders and Mongols
Malik Shah Dies
In 1092 Malik Shah dies; no capable shah replaces him.
Seljuk Empire disintegrates into loose collection of minor kingdoms.
The Seljuks and the Crusaders
Crusades begin in 1095—Christians drive the Turks out of Anatolia.
In 1099, Crusaders capture Jerusalem; massacre Muslims and Jews.
A fragment of Seljuk Empire fights back and Muslims recover Jerusalem.
Saladin allows Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places.
Seljuks face the Mongols
Mongol armies under leader Hulagu capture Baghdad in 1258.
Hulagu, Genghis Kahn’s grandson, burns palace, and kills Abbasid caliph.
Ends Turkish rule with much bloodshed.