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Transcript of Restoration Age
& Eighteenth Century
Changes in Religion
Deism: Religious belief based upon reason and observation of nature; “watchmaker” analogy says God built a complex universe, then let it run by itself.
Christianity still held power over almost all Europeans during this time period.
Religion and Politics
Charles II reinstituted the Anglican Church as official church of England
He attempted to outlaw Puritan and independent sects. This resulted in the popularity of British colonies in America. Also, it made the public scared to voice opposing views.
The Bloodless Revolution
When Charles II died, he had no legal heir. The only problem, his brother James II was a Roman Catholic.
Unpopular James II eventually fled to France in 1688, his Protestant daughter Mary took over
Since then, all English monarchs have been Anglicans.
England was a semi-constitutional monarchy from 1215-1689. This means power was separated between a king/queen and an elected parliament. The king was determined by a line of succession from royal families.
Oliver Cromwell was a Military Dictator who took over power after King Charles I execution. When he died his son Richard was the successor; however, he resigned in May of 1659.
The old parliament restored it's power and crowned Charles II the new king. He reigned from 1661-1685.
James II became king after King Charles II died. James had nearly all the qualities to ensure getting himself dethroned, which came to be after the Glorious Revolution.
The Glorious Revolution was Parliament calling on Mary, King James daughter, and her husband William to dethrone the king.
William and Mary's Dutch army marched to London where James' army deserted him, and he fled to France.
In the 1720s Britain was one of the most successful countries in the world. The South Sea Bubble was a business enterprise that exploded in scandal. The South Sea Company was a private business corporation set up in London ostensibly to grant trade monopolies in South America.
The United Kingdom was born May 1, 1707 shortly after the parliaments in Scotland and England had ratified the Treaty of Union in 1706. During the period 45 members of Scotland and all previous members of England were part of the House of Commons of Great Britain and 16 more members of Scotland joining the English members for the House of Lords.
Had little interaction with others due to the Atlantic revolutions going on in the 1770s-1820s.
The Restoration period begins in 1660, the year in which King Charles II (the exiled Stuart king) was restored to the English throne.
England, Scotland, and Wales were united as Great Britain by the 1707 Act of Union.
Ponds were ubiquitous features of the traditional rural waterscape
Ambition—money to be made in furs, tobacco, logging for the building of ships
Industrial Revolution: Period of major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology
The court of King Charles II championed the right of England's social elite to pursue pleasure and libertinism.
Dogmatism, or the acceptance of received religious beliefs, was widely regarded as dangerous.
Empiricism is the direct observation of experience, which infers that experience is a reliable source of knowledge. John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume all pursued differing interpretations of empiricism, and the concept itself had a profound impact on society and literature.
Writers began to advocate for improved education for women during this period.
During this time period there was slavery. This slave trade system was called the Atlantic Slave Trade. This system lasted from the 16th to 19th Century designed to ship Africans from Africa to the other nations in a triangular route. This allowed countries to get labor on the fields for a cheap price.
The Restoration period was marked by an advance in colonization and overseas trade, by the Dutch Wars, the great plague (1665), the great fire of London (1666), the birth of the Whig and Tory parties, and by the Popish Plot and other manifestations of anti-Catholicism.
In literature perhaps the most outstanding result of the Restoration was the reopening of the theaters, which had been closed since 1642, and a consequent great revival of the drama.
The drama of the period was marked by brilliance of wit and by licentiousness, which may have been a reflection of the freeness of court manners. The last and greatest works of John Milton fall within the period but are not typical of it; the same is true of John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678). The age is vividly brought to life in the diaries of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn, and in poetry the Restoration is distinguished by the work of John Dryden and a number of other poets.
• The monarchical restoration was accompanied by the re-opening of English theatres and the restoration of the Church of England as the national church.
• Church and state continued to be closely intertwined. The Test Act of 1673 required all holders of civil and military offices to take the sacrament in the Anglican Church and deny transubstantiation; those who refused were not allowed to attend university or hold public office.
• King Charles II, though he outwardly conformed to Anglicanism, had Catholic sympathies that placed him at odds with his strongly anti-Catholic Parliament.
• Once crowned, King James II quickly suspended the Test Act. In 1688, the birth of James's son alarmed the country with the prospect of a new succession of Catholic monarchs. Secret negotiations began to bring a new Protestant ruler from Europe to oust James.
William and Mary began their new reign alongside parliament forming a new structure of government. This new government where even the king where was subject to the law and certain legal procedures in ruling is called constitutional monarchy.
By doing this restructuring of the English government, it dispersed powers so not one group of people have all the authority. This is called decentralization.
In 1702 William died, his wife had died in 1695, and Anne, James II’s daughter and Mary II’s sister, took the throne.
Anne died without an heir and was succeeded by George I (1714-1727), the Elector of Hanover, a German prince, and Anne’s second cousin.
The Restoration was an age of poetry. Not only was poetry the most popular form of literature, but it was also the most significant form of literature, as poems affected political events and immediately reflected the times. It was, to its own people, an age dominated only by the king, and not by any single genius. Throughout the period, the lyric, ariel, historical, and epic poem was being developed.
One of the biggest things that happened in the Restoration Age (Theatre wise) was the return of the stage-struck Charles II to power in 1660. As soon as the previous Puritan regime's ban on public stage representations was lifted, the drama recreated itself quickly and abundantly. Two theatre companies, the King's and the Duke's Company, were established in London, with two luxurious playhouses built to designs by Christopher Wren and fitted with moveable scenery and thunder and lightning machines.Traditionally, Restoration plays have been studied by genre rather than chronology, more or less as if they were all contemporary, but scholars today insist on the rapid evolvement of drama in the period and on the importance of social and political factors affecting it. The influence of theatre company competition and playhouse economics is also acknowledged, as is the significance of the appearance of the first professional actresses
Philosophical writing The Restoration saw the publication of a number of significant pieces of political and philosophical writing that had been spurred by the actions of the Interregnum. Additionally, the court's adoption of Neo-classicism and empirical science led to a receptiveness toward significant philosophical works.
Frontispiece to Thomas Sprat's History of the Royal Society, 1667
Thomas Sprat wrote his History of the Royal Society in 1667 and set forth, in a single document, the goals of empirical science ever after. He expressed grave suspicions of adjectives, nebulous terminology, and all language that might be subjective.
Charles II approved the Royal Society for London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge (1662). The Royal Society revolutionized scientific method and the dispersal of knowledge.
The specialized modern "scientist" did not exist; Royal Society members studied natural history, natural philosophy, and natural religion.
Some Major Events in the Age of Reason
Galileo was the first "martyr" of the Age of Reason in 1633 when he was imprisoned for saying that the earth revolved around the Sun.
Isaac Newton- Explained everyday things in mathematical equations
It was not until the 17th century that the church began to allow the study of cadavers in the name of medical science.
John Locke began to formulate theories on the scope of human reason.
Included surgery done with no anesthetics other than maybe a drink or two. a woman, going into childbirth with a 1 in 10 chance of dying, most remedies involved enemas, purging), and being "bled."
surgeons may not be trained as a doctor, and do not have to be to practice. Despite the encouragement that scholarly pursuits received during the Restoration (at least amongst the nobility - Charles II wasn't fond of educating the poorer classes -( it gave them "ideas"),
Gentry – Top of the English Society. This is consisted of lords, temporal, duke, marquesses, earls, viscounts and barons. These men sat on the House of Lords (Chamber of parliament or government).
The Middle Class - Made of civil servants, lower ranking military officers, merchants, lawyer and law clerks, and lower clergy. Only until 1745 was there a difference between physicians and barbers.
The Lower Class - It consisted of craftsmen who manufactured shoes, clothing, furniture, ships, and other goods. The main people in this groups farm laborers and domestic services.
They was very limited communication due to the price of sending messages. When they needed to send messages they used telegrams, gave messages to messengers, or attached letters to birds.
Increased importance was placed on the private, individual life, as is evident in literary forms such as diaries, letters, and the novel.