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Teaching Students with Different Learning Styles, Cognitive Styles, and Forms of Intelligence

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on 26 November 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Students with Different Learning Styles, Cognitive Styles, and Forms of Intelligence

Teaching Students with Different Learning Styles, Cognitive Styles, and Forms of Intelligence

Learning Styles
Cognitive Styles
Forms of Intelligence
Cognitive Learning Styles
Global & Particular style

Global & Particular styles show us how the subjects receive information. Global learners enjoy getting the main idea and are comfortable communicating(can comfortably communicate) even if they do not know all the words or concepts, while particular learners need specific examples to understand fully.

Synthesizing & Analytic style

Synthesizing & Analytic styles are about how the subjects further process information. Learners with synthesizing style like to find and organize key points into a summary and enjoy guessing meanings and predicting outcomes, while learners with analytic style like to think and analyze and often focus on rules and generalization.

Sharpener & Leveler style

Sharpener & Leveler styles tell us how the subjects commit material into memory. Specifically, sharpeners notice differences and distinctions among items and store items separately and retrieve them individually, while levelers usually clump material to remember it by eliminating or reducing differences and by focusing almost on similarities.

Teacher Tools Related
to Cognitive Strategies

9 Forms of Intelligence
Spatial Intelligence
The spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye.
Interpersonal Intelligence
An individuals introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what one's strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes one unique, being able to predict one's own reactions/emotions.
By: Idalia Calvo
Liliana Sanchez
Nouchka Placide

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Musical Intelligence
Kinesthetic Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Naturalistic Intelligence
Existential Intelligence
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison, Wesley, Longman, Inc.

Carson, J. G. & Longhini, A. (2002), Focusing on learning styles and strategies: A diary study in an immersion setting. Language Learning, 52, 401-438, doi:10.1111/0023-8333.00188

Cohen, A. D., & Dörnyei, Z. (2002). Focus on the language learner: Motivation, styles, and strategies. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 170-190). London: Arnold.

Cohen, Andrew D., & Weaver, Susan J. (2006). Styles- and strategies- Based Instruction: A Teachers’ Guide. Bei Jing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

are typical tendencies that influence how a person perceives his/her surroundings and makes sense of the world, serving as a basis for how the person gathers, organizes and processes information when learning.
applied to a classroom situation, this means that if content and learning materials are presented in a way that is at odds with an individual’s cognitive style, the individual may not be able to gather, organize and process the information in an effective way and this may “affect students’ learning potential and their attitudes toward English and toward learning in general”.
appears to be a relatively stable trait within an individual that is connected to their personality and may also have a cultural component.

Global & Particular style
Synthesizing & Analytic style
Sharpener & Leveler style
Deductive & Inductive style
Field-Independent & Field-Dependent style
Impulsive & Reflective style

Deductive & Inductive style

Deductive & Inductive styles illustrate how learners deal with language rules. Deductive learners like to go from general to specific and start with rules and theories rather than specific examples. In the contrary, inductive learners like to go from specific to general and begin with examples rather than rules or theories.

Field-Independent & Field-Dependent style

Field-Independent & Field-Dependent styles are about how participants deal with multiple inputs. Field-Independent learners are able to handle the language parts as well as the whole without being distracted, while Field-Dependent learners need context to focus on and understand something and may take in language one part at a time.

Impulsive & Reflective style

Impulsive & Reflective styles have something to do with how learners’(learners) dealing with response time. Generally, with impulsive style, learners would react quickly in acting or speaking without thinking the situation thoroughly, while reflective learners process information at a low speed with high accuracy.

Orienting strategy
– His/her attention is drawn to a task through teacher input such as a cue, highlighted material and student self-regulation.
Specific Attentional Aids
– connects information to something highly accessible like an object, language or part of the body
Specific Aids for Problem-solving or Memorization
– connects a concrete object or other cue to the task. Examples are counters and other concrete objects used in math
Rehearsal Strategies
– uses repeated practice of information to learn it. The repeated practice increases the student’s familiarity with the information.
Elaboration Strategies
– student uses elements of what is to be learned and expands them. For example, making an analogy.
Transformation Strategies
– learner begins with another person’s information and transforms that information into something else without losing the concept of the original. For example, paraphrasing.
Imagery Strategies
– activating the memory by taking what is to be learned and creating visual, auditory or kinesthetic images of the information.
Mnemonics Strategies
– student converts difficult or unfamiliar information into more manageable information by connecting the information to be learned with key words or letters.
Organization Strategies
– allows the learner to manipulate, integrate and interact with the information so that it is more easily learned and remembered. For example: prioritizing, clustering and categorization.

The sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.

This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking. It also has to do with having the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system. Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general intelligence.
People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates.
Linguistic Intelligence
The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses.
People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things.
The interaction with others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group.
A person's nurturing and relating information to their natural surroundings.
The ability to be sensitive to, or have the capacity for, conceptualizing or tackling deeper or larger questions about human existence. Although not endorsed by Gardner, he believed that it may be a useful construct.

Musical Intelligence
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Spatial Intelligence
Linguistic Intelligence
Kinesthetic Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Naturalistic Intelligence
Existential Intelligence
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates into specific "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences."
Completing crossword puzzles with vocabulary words.
Writing short stories for a classroom newsletter.
Writing feature articles for the school newspaper.
Writing a letter to the editor in response to articles.
Writing to state representatives about local issues.
Creating poems for a class poetry book.
Listening to a storyteller.
Studying the habits of good speakers.
Telling a story to the class.
Participating in debates.
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Playing math games like mancala, dominoes, chess, checkers, and Monopoly.
Searching for patterns in the classroom, school, outdoors, and home.
Conducting experiments to demonstrate science concepts.
Using math and science software
Using science tool kits for science programs.
Designing alphabetic and numeric codes.
Making up analogies.
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Writing their own songs and music about content-area topics.
Putting original poems to music, and then performing them for the class.
Setting a poem to music, and then performing it for the class.
Incorporating a poem they have written with a melody they already know.
Listening to music from different historical periods.
Tape recording a poem over "appropriate" background music.
Using rhythm and clapping to memorize math facts and other content-area information.
Listening to CDs that teach concepts like the alphabet.

Teaching Strategies and Activities
Taking photographs for assignments and classroom newsletters.
Taking photographs for the school yearbook, school newsletter, or science assignments.
Using clay or play dough to make objects or represent concepts from content-area lessons.
Using pictorial models such as flow charts, visual maps, Venn diagrams, and timelines
Taking notes using concept mapping, mind mapping, and clustering.
Using puppets to act out and reinforce concepts learned in class.
Using maps to study geographical locations discussed in class.
Using virtual-reality system software.
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Creating costumes for role-playing, skits, or simulations.
Performing skits or acting out scenes from books or key historical events.
Designing props for plays and skits.
Using charades to act out characters in a book, vocabulary words, animals, or other content-area topics.
Participating in scavenger hunts, searching for items related to a theme or unit.
Acting out concepts.
Participating in movement breaks during the day.

Teaching Strategies and Activities
Working in cooperative groups to design and complete projects.
Working in pairs to learn math facts.
Interviewing people with knowledge about content-area topics.
Tutoring younger students or classmates.
Using puppets to put on a puppet show.
Writing reflective papers on content-area topics.
Writing essays from the perspective of historical figures, such as Civil War soldiers or suffragettes.
Writing a literary autobiography, reflecting on their reading life.
Writing goals for the future.
Using software that allows them to work alone
Keeping journals or logs throughout the year.
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Caring for classroom plants.
Caring for classroom pets.
Sorting and classifying natural objects, such as leaves and rocks.
Researching animal habitats.
Observing natural surroundings.
Teaching Strategies and Activities
Make connections between what is being learned and the world outside the classroom
Provide students with overviews in order to support their desire to see the big picture
Have students look at a topic from different points of view
Have students summarize the information learned in a lesson
Have students create lessons to teach their classmates information
References Cont.

Rief, S. & Heimburge, J. (1996). How to Reach & Teach All Students In the Inclusive Classroom. The Center for Applied Research in Education, NY

Sadker D.M., & Zittleman, K.R. (2013). Teachers, School and Society: Teaching Your Diverse Students. USA: McGraw-Hill Education

The belief that students have diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information and have different preference, ranging from preferred light and noise levels to independent or group learning formats.
3-Type of factors contribute to each student's individual learning style:
Affective factors
Affective (attitudes)
The different levels of motivation an individual brings to learning, and the intensity level of this motivation is a critical determinant of learning style.
Different factors that a student may respond to differently for learning. Examples: Light, sound, temperature, hunger, time of day etc.
Cognitive (information processing)
Individuals have different ways of perceiving, organizing, retaining, and using information, which are all components of the cognitive domain.

McEnerney, K. (1993). Cooperative learning as a teaching strategy. Medical Observer Oct. 1993 58+. General One File. http://go.galegroup.com
Four Most Common Types of Learners
Auditory Learners
Visual Learners
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners
Read/write Learners
Auditory Learners
Auditory learners focuses on conversations and lectures; students often develop strong language skills.
Teaching Methods
Audio-tape classroom activities ore record key lesson ideas.
Encourage students to recite the main points of a book or lecture.
Include group work into class activities so students can verbally share ideas.
Suggest that students read the text or any new vocabulary words out loud.
Visual Learner
Students learn with their eyes.
Teaching Methods
Use textbooks, charts, course outlines, flash cards, video, maps, and computer simulations as instructional aids.
Ask students to highlight or color-code key lesson points.
Note subheadings and illustrations before students read a chapter.
Seat students up front, away from windows and doors (to avoid distractions)
Use guided imagery and illustrations
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learner
Teaching Methods
Students learn through hands-on, also called haptic (Greek for "moving and doing")
Plan student movement in class, as well as independent study time.
Ask students to take notes and underline key points.
Use skits and role-plays.
Integrate hands-on lessons, observations, and field explorations
Create index or flash cards for students to manipulate.
Read/Write Learners
Students learn best through the written word.
Teaching Methods
Encourage the child to write plenty of notes, rewrite them in her own words, and study from them.
Provide thorough, well organized written material, and write key points in full sentences on the board during lectures.
Assign plenty of writing exercises.
Explain diagrams, graphs, or any mathematical data using language.\Set up a quite study area with as few distractions as possible
Allow students to answer multiple-choice questions.
To Reach Multiple
Learning Styles
Write it!
Say it!
Do it!
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