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Attrition- The grinding down of rock particles by friction during transportation by water and wind.
There was a lot of attrtion at Pebble Beach.
The weathering makes a huge impact on the erosion. If there is wind, which there was, the waves would be more powerful and destructive. There has been a lot of human impacts at Cape Schanck. Some has been positive such as the carparks and the lighthouse. But some human impacts have an effect with the coastal processes such as people littering, standing on the rocks which makes them erode and people stepping on vegetation leading to the death of vegetation. Human Impacts There has been many implemented strategies into Cape Schanck such as
The signs- They help tourist know what they can and can not do. such as swimming in dangerous places, What wildlife there are that live in the sea and not to trample on the vegetation. These signs ensure people can have fun and learn while not damaging the wildlife and environment.
Fences- The fences are a great strategy to keep people to stay of the rocks and vegetation, therefore the rocks will not erode and the vegetation will not die. The fences were not as maintained as everything else and some off the fences were damaged.
Boardwalk/Path- The boardwalk allows tourist to travel towards the beach and not damage any vegetation or rocks. They also implemented paths. Paths are there so you can look at the view of the coastal formations without walking on the vegetation.
Car-Park- The car park was an excelent idea to ensure that people wouldn't just park anywhere and damage the rocks or vegetation by parking on it.
Information Centre-The Information centre is an interactive way of educating tourist.
Re-planting Vegetation-This is an important strategy to regenerate the environment in the region Coastal Management Strategies Coastal Processes Some coastal features in Cape Schanck are...
stacks- which is, when the soft rock of arches is eroded by the destructive waves,the rock above the arches falls, leaving behind a stack.
bays- which are the softer parts of a coastline wear away more quickly than headlands and become bays. caves
wave-cut platform- which is a narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake or bay.
Headlands- Some sections of the coastline are made up oof harder rock than other sections. These can resist the energy of th destructive waves longer than the soft parts and remains as the headland.
and cliffs- Which are formed by the action of the waves on the rock. The power of the waves erodes softer rock, leaving the more durable rock behind. Coastal Formations Abrasion Gunnamatta Geography Project Coastal Formations At Gunnamatta beach the main coastal formation are the sand dunes. The sand dunes are highly damaged and are unhealthy. The sand dunes are also poolry handeled and are barley mantained. The dunes are under threat from human impacts such as humans going on the dunes and eroding them. Coastal Processes Longshore Drift- Longshore drift consists of the transportation of sediments along a coast at an angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction, swash and backwash. At Gunnamatta there was a longshore drift, the longshore drift followed the winds direction coming towards the beach.
Constructive waves are waves with low energy, therefore having a stronger swash than backwash.
Destructive waves are waves with high energy, therefore having a stronger backwash than swash.
At Gunnamatta the waves were more destructive than construtive because the waves had high energy, thus eroding the sand easier. There was about 10 to 18 waves per minute
The dunes were clearly not maintained and nobody cared where they walked, as a result the dunes are damaged and are unhealthy. Human Impacts There were many human impacts at Gunnamatta.
The car park had a major impact on the sand dunes by placing it on the teritory of the sand dunes. This harmed the processes of the dunes, with bad consequences on the dunes health.
One other huge impact on the sand dunes are the careless people who walk on them making them erode. Coastal Manegment Stategies The coastal managment strategies at Gunnamatta were very dissapopinting. There were many strategies put in place, but some have been ignored and damaged.
The boardwalk was an excellent idea to keep tourists off the sand dunes and the vegetation.
The fences were a good idea to keep tourists off the dunes and vegetation, but sadly the fences were unmanaged and were damaged.
There is a lot of longshore drift and rips. A good strategy they implemented is having life guards to tell tourists information about where and where not to swim.
Signs were also implemented to inform tourists about the region.
There is no attempt to regenerate the environment and the management is very poor. ST. Andrews Geography Project Coastal Formations Coastal Processes Human Impacts There is not many human impacts created because the beach is well protected by only having one path so the beach is very hard to access. The vegetation is blocking any other routes into the beach. Because there is limited tourist and people there is barley and impacts.
The only human impact on ST. Andrews is the houses that were built. Because of this they had to get rid of some vegetation to build the house. Coastal Manegment Stategies There are very good strategies that help prevent human impacts such as
The path- There is only one access point into ST. Andrews beach and that is to use the path that they built. The path is a great idea to keep people off walking on the vegetation and to limit the amount of tourits and people.
The Fences- Unlike Gunnamatta and Cape Schanck, the fences at ST. Andrews were not brocken and was preventing people accessing the vegetaion.
Overall the maintainence of ST. Andrews was amazing. The sand dunes at ST. Andrews are much more maintained than
Gunnamatta's dunes. The dunes are healthy and are showing all the parts of the dune system. The vegetation is in good health and is growing without any human impacts.
There was rock pools along the shoreline. Rock pools are formed by the destructive waves eroding parts of the rock. The longshore drift system is similar to the longshore drift system in Gunnamatta. It carries sediment towards the winds direction.
ST. Andrews has more destructive waves than constructive waves which means there is more backwash than swash. These desructive waves cause erosion of the sand and other sediments.
There is a bit of constructive waves meaning there is more swash than backwash, therefore creating the longshore drift(as mentioned earlier.).
Because there is plenty of vegetaion protecting the dunes, therefore there is minimal erosion.
The dune system is perfectly structured with all the layers set out. There was the primary dune, the secondary dune and the rear dune which were easily identified. BAY headland CLIFF CAVE HEADLAND People/tourists
stand on the rocks and vegetation wich damages and erodes them. SIGNS TO HELP THE TOURISTS The fences help tourists stay off the rocks and vegetation but some fences are not effective and weak. A car park was a good idea so people do not park on the environment. The boardwalk makes sure people don't walk on the vegetation and rocks. STACK WAVE-CUT PLATFORM HEADLAND DESTRUCTIVE WAVES EVERYWHERE Damaged sand dunes
and vegetation NO CARE OF THEIR DUNE SYSTEM Very destructive waves and a lot of human action causing human impacts. Footsteps on the sand showing people have been walking on it Destroying vegetation. Destructive waves crashing on the shore. Longshore drift goes in the winds direction. Not Maintained well enough. The car park
damges the dunes
system and vegetation
that was previously there. BOARDWALK SO PEOPLE DON'T WALK ON THE DUNES. tHE FENCES ARE MEANT TO TO PROTECT THE VEGETATION BUT IS DOING A TERRIBLE JOB. LIFEGUARDS PROTECTING TOURISTS FROM RIPS. NO CARE AND SO MUCH DAMAGE TOWARDS THE BEACH, THE DUNES AND THE HUMAN STRATEGIES ROCK POOLS WHICH ARE CAUSED BY EROSION OF THE ROCKS Well maintained dunes with a healthy dune system. HEALTHY
VEGETATION DESTRUCTIVE WAVES AND LONGSHORE DRIFT MOVING THE WAY THE WIND IS. Well maintained dunes with undamaged grass and vegetation Cars and houses destoryed some of the environment. Pathway so nobody steps on the vegetatio and so there is limited access. Undamaged and maintained vegetation Pathway to the beach Houses getting built which destroys the vegetation. The following video is an example of attrition THANK- YOU FOR TAKING TIME TO LOOK AT THIS!
BY ALEX KHREISH