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Transcript of meantal hygiene
Francisco PALAWAN Underground River uu Eiffel Tower, Paris France Valencia, Spain Great wall of China Taj Mahal, INDIA Mount Fuji, Japan Sydney Harbour Bridge, Australia Istanbul, Turkey Giza Pyramids, Egypt Rio de Janeiro, Brazil London Eye, UK leaning tower of Pisa, Italy The Tasmania island, Australia Washington D.C, USA golden gate bridge and the San Francisco bay, USA New York Liberty, USA Cameroon Highland, Cameroon. Esfahan, Iran PERSONALITY DYNAMICS THE NEEDS THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION This theory state that, throughout life, desires, wishes, and drives, collectively called needs, motivate all. When not fulfilled, these needs place the individual under stress and in order to relieve the tensions created, one has to strive for appropriate satisfactions. However, the ways to satisfy these needs are governed by the society whose mechanics are not always identical to the individual's constant struggle for food, warmth, affection, achievement, recognition, and economic and emotional security. PERSONALITY DYNAMICS They are needed for the maintenance of body equilibrium; needs have to be fulfilled in order to survive. PSYCHOSOCIAL NEEDS PERSONALITY DYNAMICS These needs consist of group satisfactions that one learns to want. PSYCHOSOCIAL NEEDS Rice Terraces PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS BELONGING NEEDS SELF-ESTEEM NEEDS SELF-ACTUALIZATION maslow's hierarchy of needs PSYCHODYNAMICS Is the systemized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behaviou, emphasizing the interplay between unconcious and concious motivation - Sigmund Freud PSYCHODYNAMICS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Psychodynamics, which literally means motivation to action, define human behavior in terms of the inner personality of the inne self. PSYCHODYNAMICS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR The mind has three levels on which the symbols of these psychic forces operate, namely; the id, ego and superego Id includes the erotic craving, like sex drive, mastery drive, pleasure drive, aggressive, and other instinctual forces which seek expression. Id also includes organic needs, such as those for food, elimination and physical contact. Id seeks expression without fear of consequences nor
regard for discipline or control. Ego which operates on the conscious level of the mind, maintains a strict control over the id, but allows it some forms of gratification. Ego functions in accordance with the reality principle Superego operates on all levels of the mind, but most of its functions are carried on the subconcious level. Superego serves as a conscience which, to a large degree, is opposed to the urges of the id. Superego sets goals or standards which the ego is compelled to follow. These goal-oriented aspects set by the superego are called ego ideal. BIOLOGICAL NEEDS PERSONALITY DYNAMICS NATURE AND CONTROL OF EMOTIONS Emotions are part of everyday existence. These emotions motivate & sustain friendship and affection, and are an essential ingredient in family life. Emotion – is described as the stirred-up state of an organism involving internal and external responses. Emotions are always accompanied by an awareness of the varied feelings aroused. Arousal: is basically being alert, physically and mentally. Various body systems and hormones are involved, and contribute to alertness and readiness to move. In terms of quality, emotions may be pleasant or unpleasant.
Different emotions are classified according to its Quality and Quantity. Pleasant emotions, like love, hope, and joy, tend to foster mental health efficiency.
Unpleasant emotions like fear, anger, and despair, destroy bodily functions and are hazardous to mental health. Mild emotions have a tonic effect on physiological functions.
Strong emotions disturb the digestive, glandular, and circulatory processes.
Mild and Strong emotions that persist for long periods of time are called “disintegrative emotions.” They produce body trembling and great mental upset.
Examples are phobia, jealousy, and revenge. MILD EMOTIONAL STATES Mild emotional states occur in the form of feelings, moods, interests, attitudes, and prejudices.
Mild emotions affect behavior by decreasing or increasing the individual’s capacity for action and effectiveness.
Moods are mild feelings that persists for longer periods. Moody people are often in a state of mild depression. Whether moods are positive or negative, they affect social effectiveness and hence, the total personality.
Interests are also mild emotions, accompanied by some forms of tensions which activate behavior.
Attitudes are dispositions assumed by people which indicates feelings or opinions.
Dispositions, which are also tendencies to acti in characteristic ways to specific situations, may be positive or negative. Similar to dispositions are prejudices, which lie dormant for some time and are directed towards nations, ideas, races, or religious groups. Prejudice – unfavorable judgement towards
people. Attitudes and Prejudice predispose the person to become emotional in certain situations. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES ACCOMPANYING EMOTIONS Physiological disturbances that accompany emotions are involuntary in nature.
They are not within conscious control as they affect the functioning of the internal structures.
For mild emotions, there are corresponding feelings of well being and some noticeable changes in body functions. With strong emotions, the significant bodily changes are:
Increased heart beat and blood pressure; followed by the redirection of the blood from digestive function to muscular function.
Irregular or increased respiration
Impaired digestive functions due to the slowing down of stomach and intestinal contractions.
Increased adrenaline discharge into the blood sugar which is the source of physical energy. The resulting disturbances of physiological functions, when intensified, as in chronic emotionally, can lead to physical ailments like peptic ulcers, colitis, heart diseases, high blood pressure, enuresis and eczema. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT The child’s emotional experiences are basic factors in the molding of his or her personality. An infant’s world is limited and he or she is concerned mostly with the things nearby that can satisfy his or her immediate needs. The infant is pleased with rocking and cuddling, food-getting and thumbsucking, and other sensation of physical nature. When these needs are denied, the infant shows displeasure in an intense manner. After a few months, emotional response become differentiated into love, fear, and anger.
At about six months, the child shows signs of aggression, especially when the first frustration is encountered in connection with the onset of weaning.
At the end of the first year, violent physical responses or temper tantrums are shown. When there is a second baby, jealousy may be manifested in the first child.
As the child matures physically and mentally, reactions toward the environment become selective, and specific interests and attitudes are gradually developed. Adolescent emotions are intense and unstable.
They take the form of moods when repressed.
At the onset, the adolescent tries to discard childish ways and will form new ones.
Adolescence is a difficult period not only for emotional development but also for social adjustments.
Emotional adjustments take along period, even up to adulthood.
In adulthood, emotinality slows down and eventually disappears. FRUSTRATIONS AND CONFLICTS frustration occurs when a goal achievement is blocked. Frustration may be classified into Environmental Frustration, which maybe a physical environment or social environment and personal frustration. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
It present such obstacles as floods, typhoons,and pollutions SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Frustration like traditions and laws prevent a person from social living, or restrictions imposed by other people. PERSONAL FRUSTRATION
Is found within the personal himself which blocked the satisfaction of needs like physical deformties or illness. FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS Says that frustration causes aggression, but when the source of the frustration cannot be challenged, the aggression gets displaced onto an innocent target. CONFLICTS Contrary situation which involve the choice of alternatives can serve as sources of origins of conflict. CONFLICTS Individual experiences that create emotional tensions. CONFLICTS Refers to the tension or excitement within when one strives to reach a decision between equally attractive or repelling situation. CONFLICTS approach-approach conflict occurs when there are two desirable but mutually exclusive goals that one cannot have both. approach-avoidance conflict – there is an attraction to an object or state of affairs and at the same time repulsion towards something associated with it. The situation contains two elements, one of which is very desirable while the other is undesirable and disadvantageous. avoidance-avoidance conflict – when there are two unpleasant alternatives and one cannot be avoided without encountering the other. Emotional maturity to express all emotions experienced would make one very un-popular among people. In the interest of social living, we are supposed to balance uncontrolled emotional expression and excessive emotional inhibition or emotional control. It means regulation of feelings and emotions in terms of external and internal demands. However, emotional control does not mean repression of elimination of emotional expression. Emotional maturity is concerned with the proper control of feelings and the capacity to react to different situations in ways that are beneficial. Emotional maturity is characterized 1. ability to delay or control emotion.
2. the capacity to give adequate emotional response commensurate with one’s development level. 3. the ability to develop a reasonable amount of frustration- tolerance so as to withstand frustrating situations. END PERSONALITY DYNAMICS
THE NEEDS THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION
PSYCHODYNAMICS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
MILD EMOTIONAL STATES
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES ACCOMPANYING EMOTIONS
FRUSTRATIUONS AND CONFLICTS Acosta, Joanne