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Hannah Castillo

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of Symbiosis

The act of living together
A close relationship between 2+ species
Divided into three major categories:
Both organisms benefit from relationship

Burdock Seeds and Animal Fur
Up-close view of Burdock Seeds (Holland)
Trophic Mutualism
Orchids and Oak Trees
Alternate view of epiphyte (Aillkas)
Dermacentor andersoni
(Rocky Mountain wood tick) and Mammal Host
Upclose view of Dermacentor andersoni (Castner)
Video on Parasitism

Monarch Butterfly and Milkweed
Adult Monarch on Milkweed (Heft)
Cymothoa exigua
and Spotted-rose Snapper
Spotted-rose Snapper (NOAA)
One organism benefited, one organism harmed
Host=larger participant in symbiotic relationship (harmed)
Parasite=organism feeds on another species (benefited)
Usually host health gradually impaired (longer exploitation)
Can be divided into two basic categories:
Relationship between two species
One organism benefits
The other organism is unaffected
Can be difficult to prove
Trouble discerning non-beneficiary organism receiving no impact (Hogan)
Defensive Mutualism
Pseudomyrmex ferruginea
Acacia cornigera
(bullhorn acaia)
Pork Tapeworm (
Taenia solium
) and Human Host
Pork tapeworn inside host (Pork Tapeworm)
Bees and Angiosperms
Bee attracted to angiosperm (Leddy)
Emperor Shrimp and Sea Cucumber
Aphids and Plants
Aphids on the underside of a leaf (University of California)
Stinging Ants on the bullhorn acaia(Wojcik)
Stinging Ant (Perlman)

Burdock Seeds on a dog (Camazine)
Burs latched onto a sheep (Harrison)
Bird watching poisonous African monarch (Boyes)
Emperor shrimp magnified(Lange)
Emperor Shrimp and Sea Cucumber (DeLoach)
Bee collecting nectar (Severns)
Tapeworm inside host (Tapeworm Attached to Stomach Wall)
3-host tick (Life Cycle of Demacentor Ticks)
Algae and Fungus (Brian)
Lichen growing on a rock (Bungartz)
Lichens (Fungus and Algae)
Benefit of orchid growing on oak tree
safe location
access to sunlight
Oak tree not affected by orchid
Orchid draws nutrients from atmosphere, not tree
Orchids considered an epiphyte
Non-parasitic plants that live on another plant (Hogan)
Emperor shrimp benefits by receiving:
Transportation or means of locomotion
Shrimp "catches a ride" over large areas
Minimal energy expenditure for emperor shrimp
Food and protection
Shrimp able to feed in nutrient-rich areas
Sea Cucumber unaffected by emperor shrimp's presence
( Nearctica)
1. Trophic mutualism
Both species receive a benefit of resources
2. Defensive mutualism
Protection from predators exchanged for food/shelter
3. Dispersive mutualism
Spreading pollen/seeds in exchange for food
Using sunlight, algae makes sugars in photosynthesis
Fungus harvests algae's sugars (glucose) for energy
Most algae can survive on their own
However, algae require a specific habitat
Cohabiting with fungus allows algae to:
Live in many different environments
Extend range of habitat significantly (McGinely)
Angiosperms (flowering plants) produce high-energy nectar
Bees are attracted to nectar
While bees gather nectar, pollen covers bees
Bees benefit from energy and nutrients found in nectar
Plants increase differential reproductive success by dispersal
Spreading pollen (sperm) equals more possible offspring
Dispersive Mutualism
Benefits of relationship to
Pseudomyrmex ferruginea
(stinging ant)
Hollow pods used to raise young
Nourishment from carbohydrate-laden nectar and protein-rich leaves
Benefits of relationship to
Acacia cornigera
Protection-ants attack animals detrimental to tree
Ants clear vegetation around base of tree
Reduces Acacia's competition for resources
Tapeworm usually transmitted through infected pork ingestion
Tapeworm obtains nutrients from host's digestive system
In humans tapeworms sometimes cause
Weight loss (WebMD)
Milkweed provides for the monarch:
Location for butterflies to lay eggs
Nectar (milky sap) for nourishment
Protection from predators
Monarchs become poisonous after ingesting toxic milkweed
Predators unlikely to eat "bitter" Monarchs (Imagination Celebration Fort Worth)
Benefits to Milkweed Plant:
Monarch provides pollination for the milkweed plant
As butterfly sips nectar, pollen coats Monarch
The butterfly then eats at another plant
Pollen drops from first plant onto second
Monarch enables fertilization and reproduction of milkweed (Imagination Celebration Fort Worth)
Monarch and Milkweed Relationship CONTINUED
Cymothoa exigua
enters through the snapper’s gills
Cymothoa exigua
clamps on tongue of snapper
Proceeds to feed on blood of fish
Feeds regularly until original tongue withers, ectoparistic
Cymothoa exigua
replaces dead tongue
Acts as a substitute tongue
Spotted-rose Snapper loses tongue to nourish parasite (Rothschild)
Cymothoa exigua inside mouth of fish (NOAA)
Orchid in a commensalistic relationship with Oak (Allikas)
Burdock seeds have spines
Animals (vertebrates) contact plant and seeds attach
Seed then travels with animal on fur
Eventually seeds falls off
Animal spreads the plant’s seeds
Seeds spread farther from
parent plant location
Vertebrates not affected
Aphids are sap-feeding, ectoparasitic insects
Aphids use specialized mouthparts, stylets, to feed
Induce extensive damage on plant hosts
Interrupts plant developmental processes
For example, aphids induce leaf curling
Aphids cause significant damage in staple crops
Including potato, soybean, and cereals (Bos)
Aphids on host plant (University of California)
Up-close view of aphids (Bos)
Dermacentor andersoni
gets nutrition from mammalian blood
Blood obtained:
Palpus injected into exposed area of host's dermis
Blood used to transition through life stages
Can infect host with diseases
Rocky Mountain Spotted fever and Tularemia (rabbit fever)
Mycobacterium vaccae
can use propane as energy
Mycobacterium vaccae
breaks down cyclohexane to cyclohexanol
species (bacteria) are able to use cyclohexanol
benefit from relationship
Mycobacterium vaccae
unaffected by association (Hogan)
Mycobacterium vaccae
Pseudomonas colony (Park)
Mycobacterium vaccae and Psuedomonas commensalism (Park)
Species dependent on partner
Cannot survive without symbiosis
Species can live without partner
Species have more than one symbiotic partner
Dependency on Ecological Interactions
1. Ectoparasites- external parasites
2. Endoparasites- internal parasites (McGinley)
1. Mutualism
2. Commensalism
3. Parasitism (Campbell)

Hannah Castillo
AP Biology

Dispersive Mutualism
Full transcript