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The Cell - 7th Grade

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by

William Begoyan

on 2 September 2016

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Transcript of The Cell - 7th Grade

What are cells?
The Cell

Two major types of cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
All Cells are Alike
Robert Hooke
Cell Membrane and Cytoplasm
Page 9 in your ISN
AVID EQ: WHat are cells and what is their purpose?
A
cell
is the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.
Human bodies are composed of trillions of cells.
There are nerve cells, skin cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and many other types as well.
Each cell in your body shares the characteristics of all living things.
English scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was the first to record his observations of cells.
In 1663, he took a thin slice of cork and placed it under a microscope that he built himself.
________ is the basic unit of structure and function in a __________.
What four functions do cells share in common with all living beings?
Who was Robert Hooke and what did he discover?
Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells, be it one cell or trillions of cells.
Cells are the basic units of life
All cells come from other, living cells.
Prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
do not have a nucleus.
Very small and simple, no organelles.
Scientists believe that all life on Earth came from ancient cells of this type.
Only bacteria and archaea have this type of cell.
eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
have a nucleus and membrane-covered organelles.
They tend to be about ten times larger than prokaryotic cells.
Animals, plants, fungi, and protists all have eukaryotic cells.
Both cell types are surrounded by a membrane (cell's skin), have cytoplasm inside (mostly water), and have DNA.
The three key ideas of the Cell Theory are ________
Humans have __________ type of cell, while bacteria have _______ type of cell.
Name one thing unique to the different cell types, and one thing that they have in common.
Types of Cells
There are nerve cells, skin cells, muscle cells, blood cells, bone cells and many other types as well.
Inside a Cell
A eukaryotic cell is made of many different parts, including tiny
organelles
.
Organelles
are
membrane bound
parts of a cell that perform different functions.
Mitochondria
Plant vs Animal
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
A plant cell has everything an animal cell has, plus an additional 3 structures.
1.
Chloroplast

(plant only organelle)
: Conducts photosynthesis, converting light in to energy.
2.
Central Vacuole

(plant only organelle)
- stores water, sugar, and other nutrients for future use.
-Animal cells have vacuoles as well, but they are tiny and scattered throughout the cell.
Cell Wall
(plant only)
- Rigid external barrier. Protects plants, and helps them stay rigid.
The
cell membrane
is a thin layer that separates the inside of the cell from its outside environment (the cell's skin).
Cytoplasm
is the liquid part of the cell (mostly water), in which everything floats.
Nucleus
This organelle is the control center (brain) of the cell.
Inside is the cell's DNA (information).
This organelle is called the “powerhouses” of the cell.
They produce much of the energy a cell needs to carry out its functions. This energy is called
ATP.
Ribosomes
What is a chloroplast?
Do both plant and animals cells have vacuoles? Are they different?
What is the purpose of a cell membrane? Do plant cells have one?
This organelle _________ is the control center of the cell, inside it you can find ______.
What is the purpose of the mitochondria?
This organelle is a series of tunnels throughout the cytoplasm (cell's train line).
There are 2 types of ER, rough and smooth.
Smooth ER manufactures lipids, rough ER helps with manufacture of proteins.
Rough contains Ribosomes, smooth does not.
(Page 75-95 in your textbook)
Golgi Body
Golgi bodies
receive proteins and other compounds from the ER.
They package these materials and ship them to other parts of the cell and outside the cell (international shipments!)
These organelles are the protein factories of the cell.
Ribosomes
are tiny, a single cell can have millions inside.
Lysosome
Lysosomes
contain destructive enzymes that can break things down.
Lysosomes
pick up bacteria, food, and old organelles and break them into small pieces that can be recycled. Also act as basic cell defenders.
Cytoskeleton & Centrosomes
The
cytoskeleton
is a series of fibers made of protein.
It provides structure to the cell and gives it it's shape (cell's skeleton).
What is the difference between Smooth and Rough ER?
What do we call tiny, protein manufacturing factories?
This organelle is the
recycle center of the cell
By: Mr. Begoyan
Centrosomes manufacture the cytoskeleton, amongst other parts.
Homework
On page 8 in your ISN, draw and fully label an animal or a plant cell model (your choice).
Full transcript