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Chapter 6: Launching the New Nation
Transcript of Chapter 6: Launching the New Nation
1812, relations with Europe were more strained that ever. That year, Madison asked Congress to declare war on Britain.
Congress approved the war declaration.
The advantage swung to the Americans in 1815, when U.S. General
scored a victory in the Battle of New Orleans.
This victory came after British and American diplomats had agreed on a peace treaty.
Treaty of Ghent
, 1814, declared an
-end to the fighting.
The War of 1812 showed that the U.S. was truly independent.
The War Brings Mixed Results.
The War of 1812
This debate led to one of the most important Supreme Court decisions of all time.
Marbury v. Madison
the Supreme Court ruled that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional.
The decision established the principle of
-this allows the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
The incident became known as
Acting on their fears, the
Federalists pushed through
Alien and Sedition
These acts made it harder for immigrants to become American citizens.
Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions refusing to obey the acts.
They claimed to be acting on the principle of
- states could refuse to obey federal laws that they thought were unconstitutional.
George Washington retired from the presidency after two terms.
John Adams was elected president in 1796.
The election highlighted the dangers of
-placing interests of one
region over those of the nation as a whole.
France had begun to interfere with American shipping.
During negotiations to resolve the matter, three French officials demanded bribes from the Americans in order to help them.
Adams Provokes Criticism
One region many Americans streamed into was the Northwest Territory. This area included Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
Conflicts eventually broke out between the Native Americans and the white settlers. One notable clash occurred in 1790.
Under the leadership of
, a chieftain of the Miami Tribe, Native Americans defeated American troops as they fought for control of what would become Ohio.
1794 the American general defeated Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This defeat ended Native American resistance in Ohio.
Native Americans Resist White Settlers
1789 the French overthrew their monarchy.
Democratic-Republicans wanted to honor the treaty and support France.
Federalists wanted to back the British.
Washington decided on
support neither side.
In April 1793, the French sent a
United States to win American
U.S. Response to Events in Europe
Hamilton and supporters of a strong central government were called Federalists.
Jefferson and those who believed that state governments should be stronger than the federal governments were called Republicans. They later referred to themselves as
. (this party was the ancestor of today’s Democratic party)
These groups served as the basis for the nation’s
. Under this system, the two main political parties compete for power.
First Political Parties and Rebellion
The first president of the country
under the new government was
Although the Constitution laid a
very strong foundation, there was
no precedent, or prior example,
of how to make this new government work.
One of the first steps that Washington & Congress took was to create a judicial system.
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a national court system.
This law allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised.
The New Government Takes Shape
William Henry Harrison
, the governor of the Indiana Territory, persuaded several Native American chiefs to sign away millions of acres of tribal land to the U.S. government.
, a Native American leader, organized a confederacy of Native Americans to fight for these lands.
American troops defeated the confederacy in 1811.
Some American leaders demanded war
against Britain. The were known as
They were led by legislators
John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay.
1806 France began refusing to allow British goods to come into Europe.
In turn, Britain decided to
Europe-or prevent ships from entering or leaving ports.
1807 both Britain and France had seized more than 1,000 American ships.
The British also practiced
. This was a practice in which British forced seized American sailors and forced them to serve in the British navy.
1807 Jefferson asked Congress to declare an
- a ban on exporting goods to other countries.
The embargo hurt American business.
Why did Americans want war with Britain?
1803 Jefferson purchased a large amount of western land from France.
It was called the
. It stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
With the Louisiana Purchase, the U.S. doubled in size.
Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new land.
Lewis and Clark
led a team of soldiers and adventurers.
This group included
, a Native American woman who was a guide and interpreter.
The team traveled more than two years from St. Louis to present-day Oregon.
The United States Expands West
Just before he left office, President Adams pushed a law through Congress called the
This law increased the number of justices on the Supreme Court to sixteen.
Adams quickly filled the positions with Federalists.
The judges were called
because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his presidency.
Adams’ packing of the courts with Federalists angered Jefferson and Democratic-Republicans.
Jefferson’s inauguration signaled the first time in the new nation’s history that power was transferred from one political party to another.
Jefferson believed that the people should have greater control of the government.
He also believed that government should be simple and small.
, a Federalists, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
The Jefferson Presidency
Jefferson defeated Adams by eight electoral votes. However, Jefferson and his running mate,
, received the same number of electoral votes.
The House of Representatives had to decide the winner.
The controversy revealed a problem with the election system.
The nation solved this by passing the Twelfth Amendment. The amendment called for electors to vote separately for president and vice president.
Jefferson Wins Presidential Election of 1800
Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course
That same year, U.S. diplomat
negotiated a treaty with Britain.
Under the Jay Treaty, the British agreed to give up their forts in the Northwest Territory.
treaty with Spain.
Under the agreement, known as Pinckney’s
Treaty, Spain gave up its claims to the land
east of the Mississippi River.
Spain also agreed to open the Mississippi River to American traffic.
This treaty paved the way for American expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation
Congress passed two important taxes:
Protective tariff-placed a tax on goods imported from Europe
Excise tax- sales tax on whiskey (farmers became angry about the tax and attacked tax collectors, Whiskey Rebellion)
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
Hamilton wanted a strong central government and called for an economy that helped trade and industry.
Jefferson wanted a weak central government and an economy that favored farmers.
The industrial North backed Hamilton.
The largely agricultural South backed Jefferson.
Hamilton wanted to set up the
Bank of the United States
. This bank would be funded by the federal government and wealthy investors. The bank would issue paper money.
Hamilton convinced Congress to pass his plan a national bank, and won support from the Southern lawmakers by agreeing to build the nation’s new capital in Washington, D.C.
Washington & Congress also created three executive departments:
Department of State – deals with foreign affairs
Department of War – deals with military affairs
Department of Treasury – deals with financial affairs
Washington chose strong leaders to head these departments.
He chose Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State.
He chose Henry Knox as Secretary of War.
as Secretary of Treasury.
These department heads soon became the presidents
, or chief advisors.
Washington Heads the New Government
Launching the New Nation