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HENNIG BRAND

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lionel violet

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of HENNIG BRAND

"Phosphorus: fire from urine." UL University of Limerick. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www3.ul.ie/~childsp/CinA/Issue60/
What Is The World Made Of - The Story Of Science - BBC Documentary (Full) - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <
Emsley, John. The shocking history of phosphorus: a biography of the devil's element. London: Macmillan, 2000. Print.
Weeks, Mary Elvira. The discovery of the elements ... Easton, Pa.: Mack printing co., 1933. Print.
"Laboratory Division :: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin." Welcome :: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://cas.utpb.edu/laboratory-division/>.
"Hennig Brand (German chemist) -- Encyclopedia Britannica." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/77626/Hennig-Brand>.
"Hennig Brand's "Philosopher's Stone"." Today in Science History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <todayinsci.com/stories/story013.htm>.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
HENNIG BRAND
DISTILLER OF URINE, DISCOVERER OF PHOSPHORUS
Hamburg, Germany
Experimented in 1669
Tried to find the legendary Philosophers' Stone (which would allegedly transform simple base metals into gold)
Because he was bankrupt?
Because his wife brought him a rich dowry so he could experiment?
One of the last of the
ALCHEMISTS
Worked in secret
Little recorded of their work

Brand kept his discovery a secret until Robert Boyle (England) discovered it independently in 1680
Hennig Brand named his discovery Phosphorus, derived from the Greek 'light-bearer' in part because it glows in the dark and in part because of its furious burning qualities
b. 1630, d. 1710, perhaps

1. (NH4)NaHPO4 —› NaPO3 + NH3 + H2O

2. 8NaPO3 + 10C —› 2Na4P2O7 + 10CO + P4
Urine contains phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon. When exposed to large amounts of heat, the carbon and oxygen combine and form carbon monoxide, leaving just the phosphorus. The phosphorus is a liquid until either 280°C or 44°C, the latter of which causes solidification into the white, waxy substance that was the end result of Brand's experiments.
Discard the salt, mix the red oil back into the black material.
Heat that mixture strongly for 16 hours.
First white fumes come off, then an oil, then phosphorus.
The phosphorus may be passed into cold water to solidify.
Phosphorus
0.26
Ingredients:

Urine, 60 buckets
Fire (very controlled)
Boil urine to reduce it to a thick syrup.
Heat until a red oil distills up from it, and draw that off.
Allow the remainder to cool, where it consists of a black spongy upper part and a salty lower part.
Procedure:
Procedure (cont.):
Late Middle Ages
Ĥ
The science behind it
Materials difficult to acquire
Variables difficult to control
Alchemists worked in secret, Brand had to work undercover

Challenges of the time
I mean, where do you even get 60 buckets of urine?!
Emsley, John. The shocking history of phosphorus: a biography of the devil's element. London: Macmillan, 2000. Print.
"Hennig Brand (German chemist) -- Encyclopedia Britannica." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/77626/Hennig-Brand>
"Hennig Brand's "Philosopher's Stone"."Today in Science History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <todayinsci.com/stories/story013.htm>.
"Laboratory Division :: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin." Welcome :: The University of Texas of the Permian Basin. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://cas.utpb.edu/laboratory-division/>.
"Phosphorus: fire from urine." UL University of Limerick. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <http://www3.ul.ie/~childsp/CinA/Issue60/TOC55_Urine.htm>.
Weeks, Mary Elvira. The discovery of the elements ... Easton, Pa.: Mack printing co., 1933. Print.
"What Is The World Made Of - The Story Of Science - BBC Documentary (Full) - YouTube." YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. <
Amy Anders & Fiona Connolly
By:
Chemistry Class, 2013
(to duly commemorate)
Full transcript