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Global Perspectives Paper 3

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Eugene Lin

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of Global Perspectives Paper 3

Eugene Lin
Brunella McCann
Miesha Moss
Mason Wolff

Should minors be taught contraceptive inclusive Sex-Ed?
Sex Education should not be part of the school curriculum.

Sex Education should be based solely on abstinence, not contraceptives.
Contraceptive Inclusive Sex Ed should be taught to minors.
No Sex-Ed
Umm Reem:
Bachelors degree in Islamic Studies from American Open University.
She studied Arabic Language and Literature at Qatar University and at Cairo Institute in Egypt.
She is the founder of Daughters of Adam Magazine
Her focus is on Mother-Daughter relationships.
Reem's Main Conclusion
Another reason she provides is that sex education in schools robs parents of their authority over their children. She insists that sex education is a discussion to be had between the child and the parent. As evidence, she gives examples of parents opposing the way sex education is being taught such as a case in California in which a judge ruled that public schools have the right to administer sex instructions to any children, at any time and in any manner, notwithstanding the a objections of any of their parents.
Abstinence Only Sex-Ed
Jemmott's Main Conclusion
Jemmont supports abstinence exclusive sex education among minors and thinks that "we've written off abstinence-only education without looking closely at the nature of the evidence".

"Abstinence education treats the whole being, teaching youth to respect themselves, set goals, avoid risky behavior to have a healthy future and promoting chastity leads to healthier lifestyles".

Contraceptive Inclusive Sex Ed
Melissa Fletcher Stoeltje:
Has been a reporter for more than 20 years
Worked for newspapers such as the Houston Chronicle and the San Antonio Light.
Has a Bachelor’s and a Master’s degree in English from the University of Texas.
She has multiple awards locally, state-wide, and nationally in the field of journalism.
Stoeltje's Main Conclusion
Stoeltje supports the idea that contraceptives should be included in the sex education curriculum. She makes the argument that comprehensive sex ed, education on abstinence, as well as contraception go hand in hand and should be taught to minors to make their own decisions.

In her argument, she cites the examples of the American states of California and Texas. California, since the 1990’s, have been an avid supporter of Sex-Ed and has embraced comprehensive Sex-Ed. Texas, according to the resident Stoeltje, has promoted a drastically worse method of Sex-Ed, with negativity and misinformation. The statistics surrounding these two states are astounding. Texas is number 4 in the U.S for leading teen pregnancies and California the 29th. In addition to these statistics, Stoeltje says parents do a poor job in educating kids these days. Studies show these methods of Sex- Ed delay kids from sex, reduce the number of partners, or increase the use of protection.

Students should be educated on the use of contraceptives along with abstinence based sexual education and allowed to make their own choices. However, schools should not influence them in any way such as distributing contraceptives. This decision should be made by parents along with their children. If parents do not feel comfortable with the material taught in schools, then they have the right to withhold their children from the class.
Bailey, Valentine, Dorett Campbell, and Winsome Gordon. "‘Tessanne, You Are a Winner’." Jamaica Observer News. N.p., 5 May 2013. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.
Jemmott, John B. "LifeSiteNews.com Life, Family and Culture News." LifeSiteNews. LifeSiteNews, 1 Feb. 2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.
Reem, Umm. Muslim Matters. 6/7/11. Web. 12/13/13. http://muslimmatters.org/2011/06/07/why-sex-ed-should-be-given-at-home-and-not-in-public-schools/
Teaching Times. Imaginative Minds Group.Web. 12/13/13. http://www.teachingtimes.com/news/sex-education-schools.htm
"What Are the Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Why Is the Catholic Church Opposed to Them?" Rediscover:. N.p., 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.
Stoeltje, Melissa. "Abstinence Can Be Taught along with Contraception." San Antonio Express-News. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.
Martin, Roland. "Sex Education Should Be Mandatory in All Schools." CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 15 Dec. 2013.

Various Perspectives

Dr Winsome Gordon — Chief Executive Officer of Jamaica's Teaching Council —further supports this statement as she believes "Parents have their children, they are suppose to discuss sexuality, sexual relations and intercourse with their children. That is a parental responsibility, it is not a responsibility that I would like to give to an education system. “Reem’s statement can also be supported by a survey conducted by imaginative minds group that found that “more than half of parents do not think sex education should be taught to their children at schools”.

John B. Jemmott III:
Has a Ph.D in Psychology from the Department of Psychology and Social Relations at Harvard University.
Member of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Behavioral Medicine.
Has received numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health to conduct research on HIV/STD risk reduction interventions around the world.
Reem personally states "I strongly oppose exposing our children to 'secular, religion-neutral', 'exploratory' sexual education at schools, but at the same time vehemently insist that such education be done at home by parents, or other 'religion-enhanced' format. You have to replace, not simply discard the education.

She explains that there is an increase in promiscuity amongst minors due to the content available on sites that are promoted by the organizations funding sex education programs. For example, one organization encourages students to visit University of Columbia’s health Q&A service, Go Ask Alice. It is a website dedicated to giving information regarding STD’s and the types of sex, which Reem feels is not appropriate for students to be exposed to without their parent’s guidance.

She furthers her argument by explaining that once kids get on these “highly recommended sites” by those that they trust (sex education educators), it is hard not to expect them to also read extremely sensual, erotic, and physical information. Consequently, “will they not get aroused and will they not want to experience and experiment what they need; in other words, will it not increase promiscuity?” The use of this statement to depict the fears of parents is relevant and allows her to get her point across effectively. She also compares parents teaching their child about eating healthy but continues to cook unhealthy food to sex education programs; teaching about safe sex but giving materials that say otherwise.
Valentine Bailey (Principle of Camperdown High School) states “that the act itself… sends a bad signal to that child. You giving them condoms may be seen as a signal to say alright, indulge but just protect”.

Dorret Campbell (Deputy Chief Education Officer of the Ministry of Education) supports this by saying "that if you give them condoms, they will still have unprotected sex. It is responsible behavior to abstain from sex until you can deal with the consequences of sex and that is the
message that I want students to get".
He and his colleagues conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate an eight hour abstinence only program targeting reduced sexual intercourse. The study found that the probability of ever having sexual intercourse was lower among teens in the abstinence-only program than those in condom-promoting courses or those undergoing no sex education.

The study randomly assigned 662 African-American students (average age 12.2) to participate in an abstinence-only intervention, safer-sex–only intervention targeting increased condom use; comprehensive interventions targeting both sexual intercourse and condom use; or a control intervention focusing on health issues unrelated to sexual behavior.

The researchers found that the probability of ever having sexual intercourse by the 24-month follow-up was 33.5% in the abstinence-only program, 48.5 % in the control group attending health promotion courses. 52% of teens in the "safer sex" programs reported sexual activity, while 42% of those in mixed "safer sex"/abstinence program reported activity.

Contraceptive Sex Ed Promotes Promiscuity
Contraceptives Can Have Harmful Effect on the Body
The education of contraceptives encourages casual sex which leads to an increased spread of sexually-transmitted disease.

STDs and pregnancies are still possible even with the use of contraceptive. In fact, studies have found that typical condom use offers inadequate or little protection against Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

Hormonal Contraceptives such as Synthetic Hormones can have severe inherent risks that are powerful enough to disrupt a woman's reproductive system and affect every major system of her body.

Hormonal Contraceptives can cause blood clots, heart attack, strokes, breast cancer, liver, tumors, ovarian cysts, and a 6% loss in mineral density if used continuously.
Our Middle-Ground Conclusion
Roland Martin is an author, an American journalist, a columnist. He works for a CNN contributor, and was previously an editor for the Chicago Defender. He attended Texas A&M University as well as Louisiana Baptist University.

Martin argues that "we cannot teach math, history, and science without going into sex and contraception. With rising teen pregnancy rates, parents in denial about teaching their children, and an increase in STD’s, teaching children about sex and contraception is absolutely necessary. He also says sex is an undeniable reality of life, so students should be taught abstinence, but that we must understand that they will have sex anyways".
Comprhensive Sex-Ed Should be Mandatory in all Schools
Martin is at fault for using ad hominem when addressing his opposition and calls them "flat-out crazy" for encouraging sex education that doesn't include contraception. He also calls them “abstinence-only nuts”. These words attack the arguer rather than the argument

Melissa Stoeltje’s makes the flaw of her generalizing to prove her points about sex education in Texas. It is hard to prove that all of Texas has a bad sex education program; Stoeltje generalizes the specific evidence of bad Sex-Ed programs in a certain area to the entire state.

The fact that Reem's statement about promiscuity is an assumption or generalization and can be considered slippery slope does distract from her argument. The analogy used although representative of some situations is not representative of all situations. Though these flaws detract from her argument, her argument is strong overall because they do not disrupt her line of reasoning.
John Jemontt does have faults in his argument which weakens his overall conclusion.

The sample size is too small and selective as it is done at a “special” conference.
Also, he makes a slippery slope flaw when it is stated that "a heap of psychological problems may result".
Both the corroborating sources are reliable. Gordon as the head of a teaching council is well educated and experienced in parent-student-teacher interactions and has the ability to see the role of school in the lives of students in Jamaica. The Imaginative Minds Group is a publisher of teaching-related materials, which indicates that they are vested in keeping a good reputation with their audience. The data provided do not seem to be manipulated.
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