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Star conference. Final version

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Clare McTigue

on 23 May 2017

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Transcript of Star conference. Final version

Presentation Overview
policy makers
local authority staff
regional transport partnerships
bus operating companies
practitioners working within field of transport
other areas of local transport policy

6. Conclusions
1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Approaches to Policy Implementation
1.
Introduction

2.
Theoretical approaches to policy implementation

3.
Methodology

4.
Results – online surveys & telephone interviews

5.
Theoretical analysis and synthesis

6.
Conclusions
Local bus journeys by country and groupings of regions 1998-99 to 2014-15 Source: DfT (2016)
Scotland
3. Methodology
Bus Station
Greatest barriers to implementation :
The findings from this research can inform :

Availability of resources
Coherence and comprehensibility of the written policy
Inter-organisational communication and enforcement activities
Characteristics of implementing agencies

Unclear link between policy objectives, measures and the setting and monitoring of targets
Thank you for your attention!
5. Theoretical Analysis & Synthesis
Most frequently used and widely available mode of transport
Access to work, health and education
Generate several billions in economic benefits
Access to opportunities, reducing pollution and accidents, and improving productivity
Top-down theories
involves a management style where the heads of an organisation make the decisions and pass them down to other members of the organisation to implement
Bottom-up theories
involves decisions being processed upwards from the lowest level
Hybrid theories
try to overcome the divide between top-down and bottom-up approaches by incorporating elements of both
143
Local Authorities (Scotland, England, Wales, Unitary & Combined)
10
semi-structured telephone interviews

16
open ended questions under
5
themes
Mixed data collection method of
online surveys

and
telephone interviews
Ranked 4th highest barrier
Ranked 3rd highest barrier
Ranked 2nd highest barrier
Ranked the greatest barrier
Economic, social and health benefits
414 million
passenger journeys made by bus in 2014-15

Decrease of
2%
on 2013-14
15%
fall from peak in 2007-08
Vehicle kilometres fallen by
12%
over past 5 years
Scotland
Wales
England
(outside London)
IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF BUS POLICY BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN THE UK
Star Conference 2017
24-05-2017
Clare McTigue, Dr. Jason Monios & Prof. Tom Rye
Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University
Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh, EH10 5DT, United Kingdom

414 million
passenger journeys made by bus in 2014-15
Decrease of
2%
on 2013-14

15%
fall from peak in 2007-08

Vehicle kilometres fallen by
12%
over past 5 years
101 million
passenger journeys made by bus in 2014-15
Number of journeys and vehicle kilometres
decreased
over the last 6 years
Vehicle kilometres fallen by around
a third
since 2009-10
2.28 billion
passenger journeys made by bus in 2014-15
Gradual decrease in passenger numbers, including
1.3%
on 2013-14
Bus mileage decreased by
55 million
, a decline from
22% - 17%
in 2014-15
4. Results
1. Existing bus policy documents
2. Policy Implementation
3. Bus Policy Targets
4. Monitoring of Bus Policies
5. Barriers to Implementation
N = 56%
Online Survey
Telephone Interviews
Q. How long has your council had a written local bus policy in place?

74% have a written bus policy document in place for
+11 years


Q. How long has your council had a written local bus policy in place?

Majority said they do
not
have a document in place

“Councils want to give the impression how well they did...”

"...reflection of the severe financial challenges that councils are facing..."

Online Survey
Telephone Interviews
Q. How many different teams within the council's transport department have responsibility for the implementation of bus policies?

15
officers didn't answer this question




Q. Why did 15 respondents not identify the number of teams?

"...people can be naive and don't want to take responsibility..."

Suggests a certain level of
miscommunication
and
lack of responsibility
within local authorities

Little progress
with the success of implementing certain bus measures since the last LTP/S

Online Survey
Telephone Interviews
Q. Do you set targets and were they met?
44%
met most or more than half
of their targets
19%
don't
have targets related to bus policy

Q. Please state which targets were met.
Inconsistency
between UK councils when meeting or setting targets

Targets are
not
considered as an important stage of the policy process
Q. What more could councils do to achieve targets?

"...financial support..."

Lack of targets highlights a
broken link
between setting objectives and implementing measures to achieve them

Q. Do targets have an impact on how bus policies are implemented in your city?
More than half of the officers
agreed

Q. How are bus policies and measures currently monitored by your council?


Inconsistency
between UK councils when monitoring bus policies and measures
Online Survey
Telephone Interviews
Q. Would more bus policies be implemented as planned and without problem if stricter monitoring was in place?

9/10 officers
agreed

"...useful for driving future bids..."

Need for monitoring in place to improve chances of
future funding
to effectively monitor the measures that are in place
Online Survey
Telephone Interview
Q. Which barriers have the greatest and least impact on implementation?

Greatest impact:
Availability of resources
Characteristics of local authority (e.g.competence and size of staff)
Coherence and comprehensibility of the written policy

Least impact:
Public opposition
Relationship between key people in the council and local bus operator(s)
Reshaping or changes to policy measures by local implementation frontline staff
Q. Which barriers have the greatest and least impact on implementation?

Did
not
agree
public opposition

had a lesser impact on implementation

Did
not
agree
relationship between key people in the council and local bus operator(s)
had a lesser impact on implementation
Full transcript