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BE418 Group Presentation: Fashion Industry

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Rebecca Thomas

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of BE418 Group Presentation: Fashion Industry

BE418 Group Presentation: Fashion Industry
Oluwabukola Kolawole
Rhys Desborough
Jamila Raji
Tomas Pocevicius
Xin Zhou
Rebecca Thomas
Patrycja Waga
Grace Cooke

Main features of the fashion Industry
Specific challenges faced by the industry
Key responses to those challenges
The realities of work in the industry
What are the main features of the fashion industry?
History of Men's Fashion
From Long Dresses to Nothing
Big Fashion Cities
UK Fashion Industry
Worth £20.9 billion
Employs 816,000 people
Tourism expenditure in 2009 relating to fashion: £98 million
'Brand Britain' equity: £1.75 trillion

Marsh, P. (2012)
The New Industrial Revolution: Consumers, globalization and the end of mass production.
Yale University Press.
Arnold, R. (2009)
Fashion: A very short introduction.
Oxford University Press
Sun, W. and Li, X. (2009)
Study on clothing industry present condition and structure adjustment.
Vol. 5 (6), 128-133
Manlow, V. (2009)
Designing clothes: culture and organization of the fashion industry.
New Jersey, Transaction publishers
Hesmondhalgh, D (2013)
The Cultural Industries
. Third Edition. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Alexander, E. (2012) YSL Closes Louboutin Court Case (online). Vogue. 16 October 2012. Available at: http://www.vogue.co.uk/news/2011/04/20/christian-louboutin-sues-yves-saint-laurent-for-red-sole-shoes [Accessed 28th February 2014]
Cooper, G. (2012) Testing the latest craze- painting your own Louboutins (online). The Telegraph. 12th July 2012. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/interiorsandshopping/9396389/Testing-the-latest-craze-painting-your-own-Louboutins.html [Accessed 28th February 2014]
Hilton, B. Choi, C. Chen, S. (2004) “The Ethics of Counterfeiting in the Fashion Industry: Quality, Credence and Profit Issues”. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol 55, Issue 4. pp 345-354
Huffinton Post (2012) Burberry Earns $100 Million in Counterfeiting Lawsuit (online). 18th May 2012. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/18/burberry-100-million-lawsuit-counterfeiting_n_1526790.html [Accessed 01/03/2014]
Ostergard, R. (2000) “The Measurement of Intellectual Property Rights Protection”. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol 31, Issue 2. pp 349-360
Power, D. Hauge, A. (2008) “No Man’s Brand-Brands, Institutions, and Fashion”. Growth and Change. Vol 39, Issue 1. pp 123-143
Raustiala, K. Sprigman, C. (2006) “The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Propery in Fashion Design”. Virginia Law Review. Vol 92, Issue 8. pp 1687-1777
Bruzzi,et al (2013). Fashion Cultures Revisited: Theories, Explorations and Analysis. London: Routledge. 45.
Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994) 'Accumulating Signs: The Culture Industries', chapter 5 of Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage. pp. 111-144.
Banks, M., Calvey, C., Owen, J. and Russell, D. (2002) 'Where the Art is: Defining and Managing Creativity in New Media SMEs', Creativity and Innovation Management, 11(4): 255-261
Arvidsson, A. Malossi, G. Naro, S. (2010). Passionate Work? Labour Conditions in the Milan Fashion Industry. Journal for Cultural Research. 14 (3), 295-307.
‘The Most Expensive and Richest Cities in the World’, City Mayors Economics, http://www.citymayors.com/economics/expensive_cities2.html
Jonathan Smith. (2013). Inside the Fashion Industry's Terrifying History . Available: http://www.policymic.com/articles/65727/inside-the-fashion-industry-s-terrifying-history. Last accessed 12/03/2014.
Denise Winterman. (2012). Fashion: History's shocking styles. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16870841. Last accessed 12/03/2014.
Del Sandeen. (). Victorian Fashion History. Available: http://womens-fashion.lovetoknow.com/victorian-fashion-history. Last accessed 12/03/2014.
Josh Woodfin. (2010). Naked models at London Fashion Week. Available: http://www.fhm.com/girls/news/naked-models-at-london-fashion-week-77281. Last accessed 12/03/2014.
Yangtze Yan. (2003). World Prominent Fashion Weeks. Available: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-02/25/content_10892730.htm. Last accessed 12/03/2014.​
Glamour (2009) 7 Biggest Trends of the Past 70 Years. Available: http://www.glamour.com/fashion/2009/03/7-biggest-fashion-trends-of-the-past-70-years Last accessed 12/03/2014
BBC (2013) Bangladeshi factory workers locked in on 19-hour shifts. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24195441 Accessed 12/03/2014
The Guardian (2013) Working conditions in the fashion industry: news and resources round up. http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2013/may/19/fashion-industry-garment-factory-collapse-teaching-news-resources Accessed 12/03/2014
Celebrity Health and Fitness (2010) http://www.celebrityhealthfitness.com/1628/shocking-anorexic-model-details-pressure-to-be-thin/ Accessed 12/03/14
Today (2013) http://www.today.com/style/first-plus-size-designer-label-show-nycs-fashion-week-8C11064066 Accessed 12/03/14)
NY Daily News (2014) How Social Media has changed fashion week and revolutionised the industry. http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/fashion/social-media-21st-century-fashion-revolution-article-1.1609533 Accessed 12/03/2014
Ryan, D; Jones, C (2012) Understanding Digital Marketing. Second Edition. London: Kogan Page.
Digital Trends (2014) Instagram is growing faster than Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest combined. http://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/instagram-is-growing-faster-than-twitter-facebook-and-pinterest-combined-in-2013/#!zC9zZ Accessed 12/03/2014
The Guardian (2012) How thre 'Duchess of Cambridge' effect is helping British Fashion in the US. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/mar/30/kate-duchess-of-cambridge-fashion-lk-bennett Accessed 12/03/2014
Johnson, S; Prijatel, P. (2007) The Magazine from Cover to Cover. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Conversation (2014) Fashion bloggers force journalists to up their game. http://theconversation.com/fashion-bloggers-force-journalists-to-up-their-game-23060 Accessed 12/03/14
Wood, J; Fixmere-Oraiz. Gendered Lives Cengage Learning:134
UK Fashion Industry

Structure of UK Fashion Industry
Less integrated to reduce costs of production as it is highly labour intensive
Outsourcing vital for success
But more than likely causes negative externalities
Armani, L'Oreal and Ralph Lauren all decentralise production

Structure of UK Fashion Industry
Many organisations focused on commercial bureaucracy
Profits are often the main aim especially amongst larger organisations
Creativity often set in boundaries
Tommy Hilfiger for example is structurally bureaucratic but also brings "excitement and energy"
What are the specific challenges faced by the fashion industry?
Intellectual Property Rights
Advance technologies are providing easier methods for copying fashion products (Ostergard, 2000:350)
IPR adheres to the utilitarian doctrine (Raustiala and Sprigman, 2006:1688)
Sonny Bono Copyrights Extension Act (1998)- allows copyright logos to be protected for 95-120 years (Power and Hauge, 2008:124)
Protects the owners creativity from others
Real or Fake?

Mulberry 'Bayswater' Bag
Available for £895 through Mulberry, NET-A-PORTER etc

This version purchased from a Thai street market for £80
Prada 'Saffiano' Leather Tote Bag
Available for £1490 through Prada's website

Alexander McQueen Skull Scarf
Purchased for £165 through Harrod's website

Iconic design has been replicated many times on the high street

'Genuine' styles available through eBay for as little as £10
“According to the International Anti-Counterfeiting Coalition about 18% of the $98 million of counterfeit products seized by U.S. customs… were made up of fashion-related items” (Hilton et al, 2004:346)
Burberry: awarded $100 million in damages due to an extensive Chinese counterfeiting network (Huffington Post, 2012)
Christian Louboutin
Luxury shoes with famous red soles
Increased sales of red paint (Cooper, 2012)
Sued Yves Saint Laurent for using red soles
“Colour can…serve as a trademark in the fashion industry…Louboutin’s world famous Red Sole trademark is valid, protectable and enforceable” (Alexander, 2012
Commercial Risk
There is a high chance (80%) that a fashion collection will not be a hit or given a positive reception after launch

Fashion Competitors
Fashion Competitors
Barriers to Entry
Barriers to Entry
Death of the High Street
Death of the High Street
How has the industry responded to its challenges?
Fashion's influence on production
Technological Advancements: Production
Small scale production during the 18th century
However the Industrial revolution brought mass production changing the way people lived and worked
1785 Edmund Cartwright developed the first industrial loom

Technological Advancements: Production
1830 four looms could be controlled by an individual
Closely followed by the development of roller printing that increased the number of colours that could be printed

Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Large population growth
Rural to urban migration of production
Cotton goods more widely available
Cloth in the UK at record highs
Diverse ranges of high quality goods

Technological Advancements: Production
By the 20th century:
levels of production had dramatically increased
production being outsourced
the five leading nations moving towards the service sector

Technological Advancements: Production
Marsh, P. 2012; 19
Technological Advancements
The 19th century had little numbers of technological advancements
However the 20th & 21st Century saw a dramatic increase
Application of technology has led to many more products to be produced e.g tailoring
More recently advertising has become increasingly important

Marsh, P. 2012
The Role of Advertising
First introduction of advertising in 17th Century mostly magazines e.g. The Lady’s Magazine
Relationship between producers and magazines quickly developed
19th and 20th Century involved celebrity endorsements
TV and the Internet
WGSN.com: provides consultancy for any businesses on trends

Arnold, R. 2009
The Internet
Low cost for advertising
However exposure to advertising is wide spread: messages between sender and receiver distorted by noise
Online sales system for further reach on a global scale

Digitalisation - Social Media
Digitalisation - Social Media
Co-opting publicity
Use of celebrity in advertising
Co-opting Publicity
What are the realities of work in the fashion industry?
Emergence of Blogging
Queen Victoria's French romantic style significantly influenced how women consider and recognise themselves,
Women wore short overskirts over their dresses, or skirts with several flounced layers.
Long skirts to protect their modesty, corsetry was close-fitting and restrictive
Long trousers were usually worn under long skirts and tied at the ankle.
Society was not ready for women in trousers, even if they were almost entirely hidden under a skirt.

18th century mens fashion: Macaroni
Started by a group of rich young men
The flamboyant continental style was
adopted from the French and
For a man to participate in such
fancy was seen as senseless and

Political Presence in Fashion
Did you know that Hugo Boss was connected to the Nazis?

While the Nazis were killing people on the basis of their religion and sexuality, Hugo made their uniform.

London Fashion week, models were sent down the runway naked
Women are now seen as a sex symbol and it almost seems like this is the only way to make money.

Fashion week is a fashion industry event
Allows fashion designers to present their latest collections in runway shows
Also allows buyers, fashion bloggers etc to take a look at new season trends, influences what the high street stocks
Paris Fashion Week- The oldest fashion event which was originated in 1910.
Milan Fashion Week - One of the world capitals of design and fashion‘. Has been recognised as the indicator for fashion design.
London Fashion Week- One of the traditional "big four" fashion weeks, recognised in 1961.
New York Fashion Week-The world's first organized fashion week was recognised in New York 1943

Because fashion is diversified for customers (Bruzzi et al. 2013, 45).
Responses to new consumer markets demanded speed, adaptability and flexibility
Mass Fordist production - flexibility - disintegrated production - reflectivity - ‘Post-Fordism’ (Lash, S. and Urry, J,1994, 111-144)

Eponymous manufacturing system designed to spew out standardized
Low-cost goods
Affords its workers decent enough wages to buy them. (Lash, S. and Urry, J (1994) 111-144)

Contrasted with Fordism (Lash, S. and Urry, J,1994, 111-144)
Post-Fordism is characterized by the following attributes:
Small-batch production
Specialized products and jobs
New information technologies
Emphasis on types of consumers in contrast to previous emphasis on social class
The feminization of the work force

Emerging Fashion
Creativity can not be managed, and creatives needed to be ‘left to get on with it, as prescription kills creativity’ (Banks et al, 2002).
Also, fashion talent can not be managed, it needs to be motivated.
e.g Design awards. Internships.

The H&M Design Award
The H&M Design Award is founded to support and celebrate fashion at the earliest stages.
Winner is selected from 32 design colleges within Europe and the United States, whose students come from all over the world.
Aims to bring up the most promising talents in fashion and give them a springboard in their careers.
The British Fashion Awards
Once a year, the British Fashion Council organises the British Fashion Awards.
This event is an opportunity for the fashion industry to celebrate and promote the extraordinary creative talents in the UK.

Working Conditions: Case study
‘Passionate work? Labour Conditions in the Milan Fashion Industry’ by Arvidsson et al. (2010) based on a collaborative study of lower-level workers in the fashion industry in Milan
Includes dependent workers and supervisors
Workers in the sample worked on average 48 hours a week but peaks of 60 or 70 hours were not uncommon
Workers in the Milan fashion industry are generally underpaid

Working Conditions: Case study
Given the cost of living in Milan - ‘Ranked as number 20 among the world’s most expensive cities in 2008’ - income levels are insufficient (City Mayors Economics)
Despite such dire conditions, workers express high levels of satisfaction as fashion work is considered gratifying
General transformation of the business logic of the fashion industry from an emphasis on creativity to an emphasis on communication and brand
Production of fashion garments – the fashion industry is associated with the idea of ‘sweatshops’
Bangladeshi factory workers ‘locked in on 19-hour shifts’ (BBC)

Style is a way to say who you are
without having to speak.

Rachel Zoe
Fashion Through The Decades
Main Trends:
1950's: Pencil skirts
1960's: Mini skirts
1970's: Platform shoes
1980's: Sexy jeans
1990's: Minimalism
Available for £1490 through Prada's website

Purchased previously for £1390

Luxury designers try to increase demand and desirability through price
Work life in Fashion
Eating disorders are a major issue in the fashion industry
"At my worst I was eating just half an apple a day and drinking lots of peppermint tea with brown sugar and I still thought I would get fat" (Celebrity Health & Fitness, 2010)
20% of anorexics die within 20 years of developing the disorder (Wood & Fixmere-Oraiz)
Currently, in America, plus-sized apparel make up only 14 percent of the market share. (Today, 2013)
So what is beautiful?
'Plus Size' vs 'Skinny'
"Real women are fat, and thin, and both, and neither, and otherwise"
Influence on young people
In the US:
3rd Grade: 50-80% want to lose weight
4th Grade: 40% on diet
17 years: 78% unhappy
Main Features:
Centers around 4 main fashion cities for 'Fashion Month', illustrates to buyers how the new season will look
Industry employs 816,000 people in the UK, worth £20.9 billion, huge contributions to tourism
Specific Challenges
Large counterfeit trade, difficult to manage and can negatively affect sales
Indeterminacy of reception - hard to tell how designs will be received
Technological advancements mean advance production methods, harder to replicate
Digitalisation and social media give consumers a voice in the industry, can provide a more positive
Realities of Work
Difficult labour conditions, can be unfair in many areas of the world
Magazines having to try harder to compete with bloggers - freedom of speech could affect the reflection of designers
Still a very negative approach to models in the industry - eating disorders are common and plus-size models aren't well accomodated
"The conversation is happening, regardless of whether you choose to get involved or not" (Ryan & Jones, 2012:155)
Importance of connecting with consumer - Hot Mess grew through sharing on Instagram
Allows more intensive involvement by consumer
More inclusive experience works against negative reception
Reduced barriers to entry
Can overtake competition
Fashion shows now screened live around the world
"With social media, we have a voice. We have a way to express how we feel, why we feel certain things"
Backstage events shared on Instagram
Instagram "gained 23 percent in active users (in 2013)" (Digital Trends, 2014)
(NY Daily News, 2014)
Hot Mess identified importance of celebrity promotion
'Kate Effect' (The Guardian, 2012)
Celebrities wearing items of clothing instantly boosts their popularity and desirability
Allows companies to reproduce items multiple times and ensure sales
Rihanna for River Island
Capitalised on Rihanna's fame
Designer/high street collaborations, e.g. Lanvin for H&M, Peter Pilotto for Target
"co-opt ... people responsible for publicising texts, by socialising with them" (Hesmondalgh, 2013:31)
Fashion shows are an event to get designers noticed
Extravagance = column inches
Essential for the success of the industry - exhibits a style & look for the
forthcoming season
Buyers dependent on
the event
Traditional role of magazines to promote fashion visually, i.e. through editorials, advertisements "Design is integral, not incidental, to a magazines editorial voice" (Johnson & Prijatel, 2007:254)
Designers use fashion shows to entice
magazine editors to positively review
their shows
Expensive advertising spreads
Dependent on photography and
styling of garments
Surge of bloggers into the fashion industry has changed the face of publishing
Faster, more relatable
Bigger use of social media
"These fashion enthusiasts have effectively democratised the catwalks ... traditional journalism has had to change" (The Conversation, 2014)
Freedom of speech could mean more honest, negative reviews of designers
Fashion is a never declining industry
Always emerging
Highly competitive and fragmented
For businesses to successfully compete they need to continuously offer innovative and upgraded products
Competitors may be able to adapt to changes in consumer demand more quickly, devote greater resources to establishing brand recognition or adopt more aggressive pricing policies than others
The industry is fast and fashion trends change every season
Due to globalization retail of fashion becomes even bigger
Economies of scale
Need for capital
Product differentiation
Most consumers will have trusted brands. This is something that cannot easily be won by a new entrant to the market
Some new brands may start local retail shops while others many choose doing their business on eBay, Yahoo Bid or some local equivalent sites before they turn into big names.
The relatively low entry barrier of retail fashion could somehow explain the reason why there are heavy competitions in the retail fashion industry.
ASOS is targeting the twenty-something fashion lovers
Many high street stores closing down due to ease of shopping online, selection available, accessibility on all devices and etc
Retailers which took their business online have been able to continue engaging with their customers, and even found it easier to reach the next generation of shoppers
Some retailers use ASOS or other equivalent website
Saves money on renting space, hiring stuff and only focus on distribution
Younger demographic used to getting everything they need from the internet
(Wood & Fixmere-Oraiz)
Full transcript