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Chap 1 Criminology

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Erica Smith

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Chap 1 Criminology

Introduction to Crime and Criminology
By the end of this introduction you will be able to:
Criminology
the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior.
1. Define criminology
2. Be familiar with the various elements of the criminological enterprise.
3. Know the difference between crime and deviance.
4. Discuss the three different perspectives of crime.
5. Know what constitutes the different categories of law
6. Discuss the different purposes of the criminal law.
7. Trace the development of criminal law.
8. Be familiar with the ethical issues in criminology

Looks at the etiology (origin), extent, and nature of crime in society
Areas of interest:

Crime as a social phenomena

The process of making laws

Breaking laws
Reactions toward breaking laws

Development of principles

1. Explains the etiology (origin)
2. Extent
3. Nature of crime in society
4. Identifies the suspected cause of crime

Criminology
Criminal Justice
Study of agencies of social control—police, courts, and corrections

Criminology focus...
causes of crime
Criminal justice focus...
methods of crime control
The application or study of laws regarding criminal behavior
Criminology and Deviance

Criminology is also related to the study of
deviant behaviors

Deviance --
Actions that depart from social norms, values,
and beliefs

Are all Crimes deviant?

Are all deviant acts crimes?
What Criminologists Do:
The Criminological Enterprise
Several subareas, reflecting different orientations and perspectives
A. Criminal Statistics and Crime Measurement
B. Sociology of Law/ Law And Society/Socio-Legal Studies
C. Theory Construction and Testing
D. Criminal Behavior Systems and Crime Typologies
E. Punishment, Penology and Social Control
F. Victimology: Victims and Victimization
How...
Formulate techniques for records/data
Develop survey instruments to measure criminal activity
Identify victims of crime
Develop data for theory testing
Focus...
Devising valid and reliable measures designed to calculate the amount and trends of criminal activity
Use...
Measure the amount and trends of criminal activity
Determine who commits crime and where
Measure the effects of social policy and social trends
on crime rate changes
Design crime prevention programs and measure
their effectiveness

Focus...
the role social forces play in shaping criminal law,
and the role of criminal law in shaping society.
How...
Investigate history of legal thought
Examine how social forces shape the definition and content of the law
Examine the relationship between law and social control
Use...
Research results used to determine if legal change is required and how it should be done
Analyze the effects of criminalization/legalization on behaviors
Shape the direction of legal decisions
Focus...
test social theories, which are a systematic set of interrelated statements or principles that explain some aspect of social life.
How...
Gather data
Create hypotheses (expectations of behavior)
Test hypotheses
Use...
Research results used to predict behavior
Research results used to understand the causes of crime rates/trends
Focus...
determining the nature and cause of specific crime patterns

How...
Research various crime types/patterns (violent crime, political crime, property crime, enterprise crime, public order crime, and cybercrime.
Study offender groups (professional, psychotic, amateur, situational)
Examine the links between different types of crime and criminals
Calculate the actual costs of crime to victims
Measure the factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a crime victim
Use...
Understand why people commit certain crimes
Devise crime reduction strategies
Propose crime policies
Design services for the victims of crime
Focus...
the correction and control of criminal behavior
How...
Evaluate justice proposals for effectiveness
Evaluate justice programs in order to determine their efficiency and impact.
Assess criminal sanctions
Use...
Create crime policies
Develop methods of social control
Design effective correction and punishment of offenders
Focus...
the nature and cause of victimization
How...
Measure the extent of criminal victimization
Calculate the costs of victimization
Develop theories of victimization risk
Examine role of the victim in causing crime

Use...
Develop victim prevention strategies
Design counseling services for crime victims
Design compensation programs for crime victims

How Criminologists View Crime
The Consensus View of Crime
Criminal behavior is repugnant to all society
Substantive criminal law reflects values, beliefs, and opinion of society
(general agreement on crimes)
Social harm -behaviors harmful to others must be controlled
Victimless crimes- are they?
The Conflict View of Crime
Views society as a collection of diverse groups in constant and continuing conflict.
Law and criminal justice system used to advance economic and political position of those with power
Criminal laws are viewed as acts created to protect the haves from the have-nots.
Crime is a political concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes at the expense of the poor.
Street crime vs. white collar crime

The Interactionist View of Crime
People, institutions, and events are viewed subjectively and labeled either good or evil according to the interpretation of the evaluator.
Crime definitions reflect the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power
The process in which people are defined or labeled as criminal is also subjective.
Criminals are individuals society has stigmatized, or chosen to label as outcasts or deviants, because they have violated social rules.

Crime and the Law
A Brief History of the Law

The Code of Hammurabi
Mosaic Code of the Israelites
The Dark Ages…
Oath of innocence
Trial by ordeal

Common Law

Precedents applied in all similar cases
Mala in se – inherently evil and depraved
Mala prohibitum – statutory, reflect existing social conditions

The Law in Contemporary Society

Substantive criminal law
Procedural criminal law
Civil law
Public or administrative law

Crime and the Law
Shaping the Criminal Law
Common law
Criminal codes
Legislative statutes
Judicial decision making
Constitutional limits

Crime and the Law
Defines crime and punishment
Felonies
Misdemeanors
Goals:
Enforcing social control
Discouraging revenge
Expressing public opinion and morality
Deterring criminal behavior
Punishing wrongdoing
Maintaining social order
Provide restoration

The Substantive Criminal Law
Crime and the Law
The Evolution of Criminal Law
Stalking laws
Assisted suicide laws
Registering sex offenders
Clarifying rape

Controlling technology
Protecting the environment
Legalizing marijuana
Responding to terrorism

Ethical Issues in Criminology
What to study?
Scholarly interests
Social needs
Availability of accurate data
Funding
Potential conflict of interest

Whom to Study?
Poor
Minorities
Middle class

How to Study?
Methods of research
Special treatment
Disclosure
Full transcript