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Lucy Dawson

on 19 April 2010

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Transcript of Cloning.

CLONING (: There are several different types of cloning and all are very useful and different in their own unique ways. What is cloning?
Cloning is where a new individual is made with identical DNA to the parent.
This is a form of asexual reproduction because there is no fusion of gametes. How are they made? The most widel method of creating clones in a lab which is called 'Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer'. The procedure is to take a fertilized cell, replace its nucleus with one you wish to clone and then place that cell to an environment where it can divide and develop into a clone. Cuttings. You can produce new plants from taking a cutting from an old plant. This is a form of asexual reproduction and has been done for many years.
To take a cutting you remove a small piece of a plant (often part of the stem). If you then grown this cutting in a suitable environment then new roots and shoots will form and will produce a new complete plant.
The plant cuttings will be genetically identical to the parents plants. Tissue Culture. Taking cuttings from a plant is a very old way of cloning plants so scientists came up wth a new method called 'Tissue Culture'.
Even though it is more expensive, it allows you to make thousands of new plants from a tiny piece of plant tissue instead of just one. if you us the right mixture of plant hormones, you can make a small group of cells from the plant you want, produce a big amount of identical plant cells.
Embryo Transplants. In recent years cloning technology has moved forward even further and now includes animals. Cloning cattle embryos has beome popular. Cows normally produce only one or two calves at a time, whereas if you use embryo cloning, your very best cows can produce more top quality calves.
In embryo cloning, you give a top-quality cow fertilty hormones to make her produce more eggs. You then fertilise these eggs using sperm from a really good bull. Often this is done inside the cow and the embryos which are produced are then gently washed out of her womb. Sometimes the eggs are collected and then sperm is added to them in a lab to produce the embryos and then inserted back into the cow. Embryos Continued... Embryo transplants still happen in humans though. Its the procedure where a in-vitro fertilised egg placed into the uterus of the mother. Embryo transplant is now used to give underproductive women the chance to have children of their own .
The process of embryo transfer in humans involves healthy embryos being placed within the uterus of the female through a thin tube that passes through the vagina and cervix. Fusion Cell Cloning. Cloning animals without sexual production being involved at all is known as 'Fusion Cell Cloning' and has been a major scientific breakthrough. To clone a cell from an adult animal is easy. Asexual reproduction takes place all the time in your body to produce millions of identical cells, but taking a cell from an animal and make a embryo or even just a identical animal is a very hard and different thing. Steps involved. 1. The nucleus is taken from an adult cell.
2. At the same time the nucleus is removed from an egg cell from another animal. This animal is of the same species becuase they have to have the same animal DNA or they would be cross-species.
3. The nucleus from the original adult cell is placed inthe empty egg and the new cellis given an electric shock.
4. This fuses the new cell together, and starts the process of cell division.
5. A new embryo begins to develop which is genetically identical to the original. Adult Cell Cloning. Fusion cell cloning has been used to produce whole animal clones. The first animal ever to be cloned from another adult animal was Doll the sheep.
When a new animal is produced it is known as 'adult cell' or 'reproductive cloning'. It is stll a relatively rare thing to do and you still have to fuse the nucleus of one cell with the empty egg of another animal.
Afterwards you have to place the embryo which results into the womb of a third animal. In there it develops until it is fully grown and ready to be born.
The development of this type of cloning has raised many concerns and issues, because in theory if you can clone animals such as sheep, cats and monkeys then you could clone humans. Risks. Although cloning is exciting science it has its disadvatages aswell. These include:
1. Many people fear the technique could lead to the cloning of human babies. At the moment this isnt possible but it could b someday.
2. Another problem is that people think this reduces the variety in a population. Modern cloning produces lots of plants and animals with identical genes, this means the population is less able to survive in thier natural habitat.
3. In a more natural habitat, at least one or two individuals can usually survive change. These go on to reproduce and restock. This could be a problem in the future for cloned crops, or for cloned farm animals.
4. Cloning animals through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is simply inefficient. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Benefits. 1.One big hope for adult cell cloning is that animals which have been genetically engineered to produce useful proteins in their milk can be cloned, medically useful animals.
2. Cloning could also be useful by stopping animals from going extinct or even bring back species of animals that are already extinct and died out many years ago. The technique could be used to clone pets or prized animals so that they continue even ater the original has died. However, some people are not happy about this idea. THE END! :)
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