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Transcript of Rwanda
Conflict & Conciliation Analysis
of Issues Perspectives Hutu Tutsi Goals Hutu Central Goals
Factional Goals Tutsi Positions Hutu Tutsi Interests Power Hutu Tutsi Needs Government Economic Issues Gov. Representation Economic Hutu Perspective Rights-based Hutu's
Chosen Trauma (Volkan, 7) Shared Economic Access Central Goals
Factional Goals Arusha Accords
Aug. 1993 Accords Setup
Aug. 1993 Accords Breakdown
Sept. 1993-March 1994 Return Refugees Power-sharing Gov. Supplies
Support Militias Training Intesifies Propaganda & Extremists Parties & extremists polarize April 6 1994
President Habyarimana’s plane shot down Violence & Genocide Erupts Sources of Conflict Social Identity Theory (Pruitt & Kim, 2004)
SIT states that groups derive self esteem from their identified in-group, favor resource allocation to the in-group and distrust/desire to eliminate the outgroup
Hutus favor their own group more than the Tutsis, even thouth these differences were significantly fabricated by colonial rulers Social Exclusion Theory (Twenge et. al., 2001)
This theory stipulates that when a person or group is excluded from particular aspects of society, they will lash out against those that have excluded them
In the case of Rwanda, it Hutus and Tutsis have excluded each other from important positions since the early 20th century, with violent backlash occuring when Hutus gained power in the 1960's Structural Conflict (Moore, 2003)
Unequal access to resources
Because Rwanda is a densely populated country that relies heavily on agricultural producion, the ruling elite ethnic group typically places merchant-Military ruling elites in power that control the resources, causing them to flow to their ingroup (Taylor, 1999) The Power of Labeling
It cannot be underscored enough how much of a role the colonial rulers had in instigating this conflict. their psuedo science of labeling the Tutsis as superior and the Hutus as inferior created significant problems. Because the Dutch legitimzed the Tutsis power, the false labeling of the Tutsis superiority manifisted itself into a reality Realistic Conflict Theory (Sherif et. al. 1961) In Fisher (1990).
Competition for real or symbolic resources produces in group bias, stereotyping and violence
Hutu and Tutsi competition for food/economic prowress, power and stability translated into exacerbation of stereotyping and violence.
Elite manipulation of mass sentiments (Taras & Ganguly, 2002)
Elite leaders play on fear of the other as a way of consolidating loyalty within their own group when intragroup conflicts are causing problems for the elite.
Both Hutu leaders Habyarimana and Kayibanda did this. Reconciliation:
The Alternatives to Violence Project
(AVP) (Krietzer and Jou, 2010). Process & Guidlines
It is an experiental learning process where participants learn from each other and reflect on the discussions
It is voluntary for facilitators and participants
there is no real structure to the dialogues, facilitators complement instead of controlling
the activities are meant to be light and stimulate discussion.
What is it?
It is a facilitated dialogue process where Rwandans of all walks of life come together to share their stories of the violence and genocide
To teach communication and conflict resolution skills
To help participants build empathy for each other.
To teach the importance of cooperation and consensus building.
To teach participants how to problem solve.
History Ethnic divisions cause genocide that leave one million Rwandan's dead.
But, Ethnicity wasn't an issue until the arrival of European colonialists
Belgians percived Tutsis to be superior to Hutus, thus granting them political power History Con't
Hutus resented Tutsis for this, even after Hutus gained political power when the Europeans left
Hutu resenment towards Tutsis reached a breaking point when President Hybarimana was assassinated
500,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus killed in the first three days of the genocide; 1 million dead in all Ingando Camps The Rwandan Government Insists that its people can live side by side harmoniously
De-ethicizaition and the re-teaching of history become the focus
Ingando camps are created to assist ex-prisoners and repatriates in their return to society.
Ingando camps grow in popularity, and begin incorporating more diverse segments of society
The camps are still in use today, erasing old beliefs and emphasizing commonalities among Rwandans.
Power (1918 Treaty of Versailles) – Outsider Colonization Hutu Perception Tutsi Perception Choosen Trauma (Volkan, 7) Choosen By Outsider/Belgians
Choosen Glory (Volkan, 10) What else can be done for the Rwandans??