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The Puzzle Pieces to Studying History

The Themes and Skills of Studying History
by

Brittany Turnbull

on 21 August 2015

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Transcript of The Puzzle Pieces to Studying History

THEMES OF HISTORY
SKILLS OF HISTORY
1. Analyze
2. Research
3. Technology
4. Writing
5. Recreate
6. Empathy
7. Organize
8. Connect
What do each of the skills mean?

-With a partner, think of what you think the terms mean.

-Prepare to discuss your
ideas with the class

ANALYZE
Use your brain and prior knowledge to pick apart and describe the meaning of pictures, graphs, writings, arts and other sources
RESEARCH

Read reliable texts, listens to reliable sources and view reliable items in order to find out more information about a topic

TECHNOLOGY

Use computers, ipads and other technology to find and present historical information
WRITING

Present your findings with clearly explained and organized writing.

Historical writing should always contain evidence of why what you are saying is true
RECREATE

Remake a historical object, person or event through writing, drawing, acting, building or other artistic means. A recreation represents the past today.

EMPATHY

Putting yourself in another person's shoes.

Historians must be able to imagine themselves living in another person's life and feeling what they would feel in order to understand them

ORGANIZE

Create notes and charts neatly so that information can be found and understood correctly
CONNECT

Explain how events and people are connected to each other.

Such as how one event may have caused another or how an event only may have happened because the people involved
THE PIECES TO THE PUZZLE OF STUDYING HISTORY
* Religious and Ethical Systems
* Power and Authority (Government & Economics)
* Revolution (Including Science & Technology)
* Empire Building & Colonization
* Wars
* Genocide



GOVERNMENT
(Power & Authority)
History is made by people/persons in power and their ideas.
Key questions:
*Who holds the power?
*How did that person or group come to power?
*What system of government provides order?
*How does the person or group keep or lose power?

RELIGOUS & ETHICAL SYSTEMS
Humans are often guided by universal moral standards/ideas and their interaction with society.= CULTURE
Key questions:
* What beliefs are held by the majority in a region?
* How do these major beliefs differ?
* How do the various religious groups interact?
* How do religious groups react to non-members?

REVOLUTION

It often takes force to achieve change and people that are inspired to make that change happen.
Key questions:
* What long-term ideas or institutions are being overthrown?
* What caused people to make this radical change?
* What are the results of the change?

INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

Humans have to deal with their surroundings in order to survive

Key questions:
* How do humans adjust to climate and terrain?

* How have changes in the natural world forced people to change?

* What positive and negative changes have people made to their environment?

ECONOMICS

How we as humans use our resources to satisfy our needs

KEY QUESTIONS:

* What goods and services does a society produce?
* Who controls the wealth of a society?
* How does a society obtain more goods?

CULTURAL INTERACTION

Many cultures, many different ideologies

Key questions:
* How have the cultures interacted (trade, conquest, etc.)?
* What items have cultures passed to one another?
* What political, economic, and religious ideas have been shared?
* What effects have resulted from interaction?

EMPIRE BUILDING

Cultures are always looking to grow more powerful. With that, there come many positives and negatives of colonizing other lands.
Key questions:
* What motivates other groups to conquer other lands and people?

* How does one society gain control of others?

* How does a dominant society rule its subjects?

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Humans share a desire to know more about our world and how to adapt it to fit our needs

Key questions:
* What tools and methods are used to solve problems?

* How do people gain knowledge about their world?

* How do new discoveries and inventions change the way people live?

Warm-Up:

What don't you like about history? (this doesn't mean school or class, but history itself)
Discussion: What do you like about history?
The Tools of a Historian
Historians study how people live, what happened to them and the causes and results of events
Historians rely on calendars and dating events to measure time


Before birth of Christ= B.C. (B.C.E)

Anno domini which means in the year of the lord after birth of Christ= A.D. (C.E.)

Blocks of Time:

Decade=________ Years
Century = _______ Years
c. or circa= ________
Prehistory=_________
Historians use a variety of sources to learn about the past

They analyze the sources to determine the 5 W's

They also analyze sources to be able to discover their truthfulness, point of view and bias as well as the meaning of events.
Primary sources: 1st hand evidence from people who saw or experience an event.


Secondary sources: Created after the event by people who played no actual part in them.

Atlases: Books of maps

Historical Routes: Courses over which people have traveled throughout history.


1. Conflicts arise when people are competing for the same resources (such as territory, jobs and income, housing) when they aren't fairly distributed or when there aren't enough to go round.

2. Conflicts arise when the people are unhappy with how they are governed.

3. Conflicts arise when people's beliefs clash. Religious and political views are particularly sensitive, because people often depend on these for a sense of identity and belonging.

4. In the same way ethnic differences can cause conflict, or be made to cause it.
WAR
Wars tend to have similar underlying factors as to why they are being fought in the first place
GENOCIDE
Throughout history Humans have destroyed one another

What would motivate one group to act on its hatred of another group? What might one group hope to gain by completely destroying another group?

Helen Fein, drawing on her own research and on the research of others, identifies four main motivations behind genocides.

Eliminate a real or potential threat. Fein calls this a “retributive” motivation for genocide. When one group is convinced that its existence is in jeopardy from another group, it may feel that they have no other choice but to destroy the competing group. This boils down to a “we have to get them before they get us” attitude.

Spread terror among real or potential enemies. Carrying out systematic efforts to destroy one group of enemies may send a clear signal to other potential enemies. Fein calls this motivation “preemptive.”

To acquire economic wealth. If a group (for instance, an indigenous people) stands in the way of the economic progress of another group, then it may “make sense” to simply get rid of the group that is in the way.

Implement a belief or ideology. The goal may be to create a pure race or it may be to create a utopian society. At any rate, the only way to deal with those who do not fit the ideal is to destroy them.
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