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Children with Disabilities

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Kasheida Hector

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of Children with Disabilities

What we as Social Workers Can Do
What is a Learning Disability?
The Lack of Resources for Children with Learning Disabilities in Elementary Schools
Learning Disorders, Learning Differences or LDs
umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems.
not a problem with intelligence or motivation.
Types of Learning Disabilities
Learning Disabilities in Reading (Dyslexia)
Basic Reading Problems: difficulty understanding relationship between sounds, letters, and words.
Reading Comprehension: the inability to grasp the meaning of words, phrases, and paragraphs.
Disorders confused with Learning Disabilities
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Can disrupt learning
Problems sitting still, staying focused, following instructions, staying organized, and completing homework.
Types of Learning Disabilities (cont'd)
Learning Disabilities in Motor Skills (Dyspraxia)
Sensory Integration Disorder
"Output" activity, it relates to the output of information from the brain
Difficulty with fine motor skills
Problems with hand-eye coordination , balance,and manual dexterity.
Signs and Symptoms
Difficulty understanding and following instructions
Trouble remembering what someone just told him/her
Fails to master reading, spelling, writing, and/or math skills
Difficulty distinguishing right form left
Difficulty identifying words or a tendency to reverse letters, words, or numbers. (ex. confusing "25" with "52", "b" with "d", or "no" with "on")
Lacks coordination in walking, sports, or small activities such a holding a pencil or tying shoes.
Easily loses or misplaces homework, schoolbooks, or other items
Difficulty understanding the concept of time. (yesterday, today, tomorrow)
Simply put, children and adults with learning disabilities see, hear, and understand things differently. This can lead to trouble with learning new information and skills, and putting them to use. The most common types of learning disabilities involve problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking.
Kids with learning disabilities are not lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their brains are simply wired differently. This difference affects how they receive and process information.
Learning Disabilities in Math (Dyscalculia)
Struggles with memorization and organization of numbers, operation signs, and number facts.
Trouble with counting principles (counting by 2s or 5s)
Difficulty telling time
Learning Disabilities in Writing (Dysgraphia)
Basic Writing Disorders: physical difficulty forming words and letters.
Expressive Writing Disability: struggles to organize thoughts on paper
Learning disabilities in Language (Aphasia/ Dysphasia)
Output, requires organizing thoughts in the brain and deciding what the right words are.
Difficulty with language
Problems understanding spoken language, and poor reading comprehension.
Auditory and Visual Processing Problems
Input, sending info to the brain. (eyes and ears)
Auditory Process Disorder: Difficulty hearing differences. Problems with reading, comprehension and language.
Visual Processing Disorder: Difficulty interpreting visual information. Problems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols and pictures.
Autism Spectrum
Difficulty mastering certain academic skills
Problems with communicating, reading body language, learning basic skills, making friends, and making eye contact
Defined as what a child CAN'T do.
Learning Disability Facts
Affect 1 in 10 school children
Believed to be caused by a difficulty with the nervous system affecting receiving, processing, or communicating information.
Sometimes causes low self esteem
Misbehave in school to be labeled "bad" instead of "stupid"
Needs of Children with Disabilities from Others
Give them Confidence!!!!
Learn the specifics about your child's learning disability
Research treatments, services, and new theories
Pursue treatment and services at home
Nurture child's strengths
Focus on child's growth as a person rather than academic achievements.
Consider balance between providing too much or too little assistance.
Paying attention to developmental milestones can help identify learning disorders.
Children have trouble expressing their feelings, calming themselves down and reading non verbal cues from others.
Teachers/ Counselors:
Keep up with child
Schedule meetings with parents to discuss child progress
Give them Confidence
Provide Extra Help
Extra Time
Laws and Policies
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), 1975:
Governs all special education services for children in the US.
Serious emotional disturbances
Learning Disabilities
Mental Retardation
Traumatic Brain Injury
Vision and hearing impairments
Physical disabilities
Requires students under IEPs eligible
Specific Requirements for
Free Appropriate Public Education (F.A.P.E.)
Least Restrictive Environment (L.R.E.)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, 1973:
Civil rights statue that requires that schools not discriminate against children with disabilities and provide them with reasonable accommodations
untimed tests
sitting in front of class
modified homework
provisions of necessary services
Less severe/non-eligible disabilities
Disrupts major life activity considered dangerous. Includes learning and social development.
Services Received
Special needs schools/programs
Occupational therapy
Physical therapy
Psychological/counseling services
Lack of Resources and Consequences for Children with Learning Disabilities
Mental health trouble
Delays in development
Assisted living
Trouble in school
Social skills are impacted
the inability to be social with others
Your Words Can Make a Difference
Male to female ratio 5:1
Laws and Policies
Individualized Education Program (IEP):
How the student is currently performing in school?
How the student can achieve educational goals in the coming year
How the child participates in the general education curriculum.
Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA):
Currently Knows as No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Challenged states and school districts to improve student achievements.
Accountability provisions focus attention on low-performing groups of students, intending to close the achievement gap.
Services Needed
Programs for life skills
Vocational programs
Mentoring programs
Aid in the classroom
Better funded special education programs
Experienced Social Workers/Counselors
Who's Eligible
The federal and local state government take care of the funding
The Education to all handicapped Children Act had legislation that distributed fund of 40 percent to the state
As 2012, that figure is 17 percent or 1,765 per student.
Lack of full federal funding means the local school district and the state cover the rest of the costs.
The funding problem is due to the services for disabilities is a heavily regulated business and depends on the government budget and economic status.
By law a child who is eligible for these services according to IDEA must meet these criteria.
Developmental delays, visual, auditory impairments, a specific learning disability, deaf or blindness or those with multiple disabilities fit under the definition from The IDEA as a “child with a disability.
The second is if the child shows a delay of skills or if the child is seen to be falling behind his or peers in school. These are determined by test and evaluations.
Help teachers/parents do their job
Look for a way to help the child help themselves
Help work through challenges
Advocate for more services in public schools
Advocate for transportation to schools not available in a child’s district
Help bring specialist into schools or home visits
Help communication between schools and home
Positive Reinforcements
The Process
In order to be eligible for special education or other related services a child must:
Complete a number of different test and evaluations
The child has to see qualified specialists for the tests and evaluations
Parents and qualified professionals then have to determine what type disability the child has through these, then he or she is diagnosed
The decision has to be made whether the child need to be admitted to a special education program or services related with learning disabilities.
•1850- Historical Observation
•1922- Council for Exceptional Children
•1948- Dr. Sam Kirk
•1963- Public Law
•1970- F.A.P.E ( free and appropriate public education)
•1972- PARC (Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens
•1973- Americans with Disabilities Act
- Rehabilitation Act
•1975- Legislation
•1977- Education for all Handicapped Children Act
•1982- The Education for all Handicapped Children Act
•1986- Education of the handicapped Act Amendment of 1986
History of Federal Disability Legislation in the United States of America
By 1980
white children labeled with various learning disabilities
minorities labeled emotionally disturbed or retarded.
This is problematic because it may suggest that students who are racially diverse do not have the same opportunities or learning capacities as those who are not.
There are three patterns that are well known in regards to mainstream students and minority labels in the US:
“A higher percentage of minority children than of white children are assigned to special education;"
"within special education, white children are assigned to less restrictive programs than are their minority counterparts;"
"the data — driven by inconsistent methods of diagnosis, treatment, and funding — make the overall system difficult to describe or change”.
Present day
white districts have more children from minority backgrounds enrolled in special education than they do majority students.
“It was also suggested that districts with a higher percentage of minority faculty had fewer minority students placed in special education suggesting that "minority students are treated differently in predominantly white districts than in predominantly minority districts
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