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Chapter 10: Growth of Expansion
Transcript of Chapter 10: Growth of Expansion
By:Seleste, Barry, Justin, and Eliza
Section 2: Moving West
Many Americans were heading west ( traveled to Pittsburgh ).
People traveled from
365 mi total
- which took as long as 3 weeks.
reported of sight seeing
wagons filled with people and their possessions.
along the way.
Inventors of the Steamengine and the Steam boats
Section 3: the Eva of Good Feelings
Absence of major political divisions after the war of 1812 helped being a sense of national unity.
In 1816 presidential election, James Monroe represented a United America free of political strike
Went on tour around USA
planter from SC
was a war hawk who had called for war aganist Britian in 1812
remained nationalist after the war
favored support for internal improvements and developing industries and he banked a national bank
believed these programs would benefit southerenrs.
In 1820's his opinion changed to being a leader of state sovreight.
Became strong opponent of nationalist programs such as high tariffs
Her and other southerenrs argued that they had to pay for the manufactured goods they could not produce for themselves and protected inefficient manufactures.
Section 1: Growth of Industry
Section 2: Roads and Turnpikes
The nation needed good inland roads, so they built many turnpikes for travel, and shipments of goods.
Construction was helped payed by
built corduroy roads.
Nation road reached OH continued on to Vandalia, IL.
National roads was viewed as military necessity
Section 2: River Travel
RT had advantages over wagon and horse travel.
RT's were comfortable than bumby roads
Were pioneers load thier goods on river barges.
There were 2 problems: A. most major rivers flowed in a north- south direction not east or west were people goods headed. B. traveling upstream by barge aganist the current was extremely difficult and slow. ( to fix these problems 3 Geniuses made and upgraded the steamboat)
Steamboats were a new way of River Travel for shipping goods ( this made shipping goods cheaper and faster)
Steamboats led to the growth of river cities Cincinnati and St. Louis
James Rumney: Equipped steam engine onto the small boat on the Potomac River.
John Fitch: built steam boats that navigated the Delaware River.
Neither Inventors had the boats to have enough power to take the strong currents and winds found in large rivers or open bodies of water)
Robert Fulton: developed steam boats with powerful engines called the Clermont, which made a 150mi trip from New York to Albany in a unheard of time ( 32hrs).
Steamboats couldn't tie the eastern and western parts of the country together.
Muskiness/ Government officels led by De Witt Clinton had a plan linking NYC with Great Lakes region...so they built canals
Building the Erie Canal
constructed by irish immigrants.
Was opened on October 26th, 1825.
Water was powerful in Lake Erie into the Atlantic ( East and Midwest were joined ).
Canals didnt allow steamboats because their engines could damage the eastern and earthen enbankments.
West grew dramatic between 1790-1821 creating several states. ( Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, and Missouri ).
OH and MI had a larger population because the pioneer settler could ship their crops to market alone the rivers.
Them men gather for Social Events, such as wrestling
The women met for quilting and sewing parties.
Both Mean and Women would corn husking gathering to share in stripping the husk from the corn.
Section 3: Sectionalism Grows
most felt a strong allience to the region they lived.
Thought of themselves as Northerners, Southerners.... ect.
Became more intense with national politics
conflict over slavery, white southerners approved Northerners opposed.
Southerners stressed the importance of states rights to protect slavery.
different regions also disagreed on need for tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements.
3 powerful voices emerged in congress- spokes person for their regions John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, and Henry Clay.
John. C Calhouh
First elected to Congress to represent.
Represented Massachusetts in house and senate
begin his political career as a supporter of free trade and the shipping interests of New England
favor in tariff of 1816
declared "Liberty and Union", now and forever, one and inseparable
became speaker of the house of peps in 1811
represented views of western states
served as member of the delegation
leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes through compromise.
The Missouri Compromise
Trouble adding new sates
South wanted Missouri to be admitted as a slave state
North wanted Missouri to be free/ huh slave
Maine applied to statehood
conflict also over Maine
MC - March, 1820 added Missouri as a slave sate and Maine as a free state
2nd Agreement w/ Britain
Convention of 1818= set boundary b/w Louisiana Territory, the US, and Canada
Americans gained rights to settle in Oregon country.
Relations w/ Spain
owned east Florida and claimed west florida.
1810 and 1812, Americans added parts of west florida to Louisiana and Mississippi.
April 1818, Gen. Andrew Jackson invaded east Florida seized control of 2 spanish forts
Secretary of war Calhoun said he should be tried by a military court for going Beyond his orders.
Spain signed the ''Adams -Onis Treaty" in 1819
Gave the U.S east Florida and abounded claims to West Florida.
U.S gave up claims to Spanish Texas and paid 5 million for damages.
agreed to put border b/w U.S and Spanish possessions in the west.
Border extended north-west from the Gulf of Mexico to the 42nd parallel and then west to the pacific
Gave U.S large piece of territory in the pacific North wet America had become a transcontinental power.
Mccullouh V. Maryland- Maryland impose state taxt bank n Baltimaore, bank refused
Chief ruled Maryland had Justice.
No right to tax a federal institution.
Gibbon .V. Ogden- established that states could not enact legislation that would interfere w/ Congressional power over interstate commerce.
America needed peace w/ Britain
Moved to resolve relations with Great Britain and Spain.
In 1817- The Rush-Bagot Treaty was established- set limits on the # of naval vessels each could have on the great takes with Britain
Treaty provided disamament along an part of the border b/w the U.S and Britain.
1810- a priest Miguel Hidalgo, led a rebellion against the spanish government of Mexico
Spanish defeated the forces and executed Hidalgo.
Latin American Republics
Bolivar and San Martin
1821- Mexico gained its independence
Simon Bolivar( the liberator) won freedom of Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, Boliva and Ecuador.
Jose de San Martini achieved independence for Chile and Peru.
The Monroe Doctrine
1822-Spain asked France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia to help fight against revolutionary forces in South America.
President issued a statement known as the Monroe Doctrine on December 2, 1823.
U.S wouldn't interfere w/ any existing European colonies in the Americans, Monroe declared, it would oppose any new one .
U.S didnt have military power to enforce the Monroe Doctilne never the less became an important remained so for more than 170 years.
the change from an agrarian society to one based on Industry which began in
and spread to the
Industry Revolution in New England
Economic system of the United Sates is called
capitalism, individuals put their capital, or money into business in hopes of making a profit.
Because new machines such as
water frame, power loom and
spinning jenny most mills
were built near rivers.
1785 for the first time steam engine
for a cotton mill
1793 Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin, a simple machine that quickly and efficiently
seeds from the cotton fiber.
1790 Congress passed a patent law.
A patent gives an inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time.
New England Factories
British Keeps their Industries Technology a secret -
By creating laws prohibiting their skill mechanics and machinery from leaving the country.
a worker memorized designs ( for spinning cotton thread ) and slipped out at Britain in 1789.
- Inventor of Interchangeable Parts
Interchangeable Parts: Identical Machine parts that made quickly to make a complete product and with less-skilled labor.
Americans still lived on farms
North East, farms were small
- cotton was in great demand
South slave owners- used slaves to plant, tend, and pick cotton.
Cotton Gin made it easy to clean cotton and faster and less expensive
raised pork, corn
Industries was financed by small investors ( merchants, Shopkeepers, and Farmers ).
Low taxes, few government regulations and competition cause people to invest
Corporation ( Large Business ) develop, when some legal rules were removed.
Corprations made it easy to sell stock - shares ( ownership in company ) to finance improvements and development.
1811 Charter of the U.S First Bank expired
1816 Congress Charter Second Bank of U.S.
Banks had power to make large loans to businesses
Banks was used by the rich and powerful for thier own gain.
Cities Come of Age
Growth of Factories and trade grow towns and cities.
industrial Towns grew quicker
new York, Boston, and Baltimore were centers of Commerce and trades
The West (Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Louisiville) profit from their major rivers.
Farms shipped in west using their Rivers.
Buildings were made of wood on Brick
Streets and sidewalks were unpaved
Barnyard Animals roamed free
No sewers to carry waste and dirty water away.
Diseases ( Cholera , and Yellow Fever) killed thousands of people.
Fire was threat, sparks from a fireplace or Chimney could catch on fire.
Few Towns and Cities had Organized Fire Companies.
Advantages of Living in the City and Townes.
Variety of Jobs