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Transcript of APA
APA? What's that?
Reference List (General)
- Comes at the end of your paper.
- Compilation of ALL resources used.
- If you have an in-text citation, the full citation has to be included in the reference page
What Should You Document?
- Any source that you use exact wording.
- Any source from which you adapt material in your own words.
- Any visual illustration, chart, diagram, graph, drawing, etc.
Why use a citation guide?
- Gives credit to others' work.
- Avoids plagiarism.
- Academic credibility.
- Others can access your resources.
- Testing theories and opinions.
How Should My Paper Look?
What Are They?
Occur in the body of the paper
- "in" the text
Snapshot of your reference
- Brief citation
Used for quotations and paraphrasing
EXAMPLE: (Holden , 1995, p. 234).
Notice the placement of the end
Lets take the following and create a properly punctuated in-text citation:
Using the resource information previously, and the quotation below, how would this citation look?
Short Quotes :
- Less than 40 words
- Must give page number(s) if available.
Bias refers to "constant or systematic error
(Anastasi, 1998, p. 194).
Long direct quotes:
- More than 40 words
- Indented five spaces at the left margin (for the entire quote)
- Do not use quotation marks
- Must be single-spaced
AKA: Paraphrasing, summarizing, etc.
Primary Source- Personal Observation
- Source= Writer(s) of report
- In first citation- surname , personal observation, exact date.
e.g., (Smith, personal observation, June 16, 2013).
- Just last name and date in subsequent citations.
e.g., (Smith, 2013).
In the first citation- initials and surname, personal communication, exact date.
(all lines after the first line are tabbed in)
Citations Must Include
- Author's last name and first initial
- Date of publication
- Place of publication
- Page range used
Practice # 1
Take the following information and create a reference list citation:
1 to 7 Authors
Organization as Author:
or a Google Chrome Extension
called Easybib Bibliography Creator
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
American Psychological Association
(Kelloway, 2004, p. 133).
"Indirectly" using ideas someone else created.
Quotation marks not needed!
e.g., (Smith, personal communication, June 16, 2013).
Just last name and year for subsequent citations.
e.g., (Smith, 2013).
Three or more authors:
-Use all author's surnames in first citation.
e.g., Condy, Winn & Burgess (2010) concluded...
Use first author's surname only, followed by
et al. in subsequent citations.
e.g., Condy, et al. (2010) proposed
Secondary Sources, continued
Group or Corporate Author:
Use full name of group as author in first citation.
e.g., (Canadian Union of Public Employees [CUPE], 2004).
If abbreviation is well known you may use it for subsequent citations
e.g., (CUPE, 2004).
Secondary Sources, continued
Works with no author:
Use a shortened form of the title.
e.g., Standardized testing puts students in rural areas at a disadvantage (Opportunity for All, 2007).
Jones, M. (2009). The rules of the game.
Toronto: PBG Publishing Group, 23-34.
Rumors: Gossip for Dummies
pages 153 - 168
Kelloway, N. (2011). Rumors: Gossip for dummies.
London: Oxford Publishing, (pp. 153 - 168).
Practice Solution #3:
Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.
Citing Different Types of Sources
- # of authors
- Journal name
- Issue, Volume
- Webpage vs. Website
- Dates? Authors?
- Title of Newspaper
- Title of Article
- Use an ampersand (&) to connect
e.g., Barrymore, D. & Vaughn, M.
e.g., Moore, F., Squire, V., & Ulysses, G.
Note: Each author's name is followed by a comma. Use & only before the last author.
Keep the author names as they appear in the text.
Should not be more than 7 names
- Include the first 6 authors
- Use ellipses (...) after the first 6 authors.
- Include last author's name.
Website as Author:
A web page is one single page of information, while a website is made up of a number of different web pages connected by links.
Include the full URL to the specific page you cited.
Search the page thoroughly for citation information: (page number, date, author(s)
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number
(Hall, 2001, para. 5).
If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.
No Author, No Page, No Date