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Art & Culture
Transcript of Art & Culture
- Poorly educated rural clergy.
- The sale of indulgences.
- The people of the church were unconcerned about evangelization and teaching.
- The Christian humanists denounced the corruption, riches and vice religious life. Two figures became the most important in this context, the German monk MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546) and the French theologian JOHN CALVIN ( 1509-1564). Even if they never met, their ideas together formed the basis of the Protestant Reformation of 16th century Europe. Another important figure was the English king HENRY VIII, who in 1534 declared himself the head of the English ( Anglican) church, instead of the Pope. The humanism is a intellectual, philosophical and cultural movement that happened in Europe. It´s related to the Renaissance since it began in the XIV century, on the Italian peninsula. Features of the humanism
- The creation of universities, schools and academies.
-The pacifism or irenicism: the hatred for all kinds of war.
-The new way of thinking, that was based on the trust in man , in his reason and his knowledge. The Scientific Revolution is an era associated mostly with the XVI and XVII centuries in the early modern period, where development in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. Began in Europe, and these are some pioneers of the scientific revolution. 1455: Gutenberg invents the printing press. 1473: Leonardo da Vinci produces his first drawings of human movement and anatomy. Francisco de Herrera Francisco Pacheco 1516: Erasmus demonstrated a new rationalist theology. THE RENAISSANCE: 1531: Copernicus published his "Seven Axioms of Helio centricity". 1597: The philosopher Francis Bacon, writes that "Knowledge is Power". 1609: Galileo discovers sunsponts with his new telescope. 1628: William Harvey published "An anatomical study of the heart and of the blood in animals". 1637: Rene Descartes publishes "Discourse on Method". 1645: Blaise Pascal invents the first calculator. 1687: Isaac Newton published his "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". 1618 married Juana Pacheco, she gave him 2 daughters, PAINTING: SCULPTURE: ARCHITECTURE: THE BAROQUE: PAINTING: SCULPTURE: ARCHITECTURE: THE NEOCLASSICAL: PAINTING: SCULPTURE: ARCHITECTURE: Juan Rodriguez de Silva and Jerónima Velazquez 1622 he went to Madrid and start working for the king. Later, in 1623 he painted a portrait of Philip IV. In 1629, he went to Italy for a year and a half. He received good training in languages and philosophy, but he showed an early interest for art. Velazquez return to Madrid. There he painted the first of many portraits of Don Baltasar Carlos. On August 6, 1660 Velazquez died and was buried in the Fuensalida vault of the church of San Juan Bautista. 8 days later, his wife Juana died and she was buried beside him. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses, to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany. He wanted a debate, but he began a revolution. The Catholic Church would not accept his ideas and the Pope excommunicated him in 1520. The problem developed from a religious division , but these became also in political problems. Charles V tried again to re-unite the two churches, but he saw that his objective had failed. Between 1545 and 1563 the Council of Trent was convoked by the Roman Catholic Church. The reformation in the Basque Country: why? The new discoveries pushes the society to taken up again valus of the Greek classicism like the art(painting and literature) . Joanna III of Albret became Protestant, she ordered Joanes Lizarraga to translate the New Testament into Euskera. Various nobles, however, protested against the imposition of Protestantism, but it was maintained until Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France in 1589 when he reconverted to Catholicism. Ignacia de Silva y Pacheco died in her chilhood.
Francisca de Silva y Pacheco married Juan Bautista Martinez. In the following year, Diego received 300 ducats from the king to pay the cost of moving his family to Madrid. The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe and the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science. The enlightenment was a time when man began to use his reason to discover the world, casting off the superstition and fear of the medieval world.The effort to discover the natural laws which governed the universe led to scientific, political and social advances. Enlightenment thinkers examined the rational basis of all beliefs and in the process rejected the authority of church and state.
Various enlightenment thinkers went further and wanted to change society, in the following ways:
-Improve the economy by using new techniques.
-Improve society by reducing social differences.
-Improve education and research by promoting various royal institution.
-Improve the political system trough the division of political power.
One of the thinkers of the enlightenment was Voltaire, a french writer.