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Research Project

Sleep!
by

Reva Resstack

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Research Project

Why are teens still not getting enough sleep?
school workload/level of motivation in students
Causes of sleep deprivation (voluntary and involuntary)
What are the results of sleep loss?
Academic Performance
How do sleep patterns, whether examined neurologically or psychologically, affect academic performance and personal behavior?
Five Stages of Sleep
Stage 1: Drifting in & out of sleep
Stage 2: Brain waves slow down
Stage 3: Slow waves interspersed with faster ones
Stage 4: Just extremely slow brain waves (delta waves)
REM (Rapid Eye Movement):
The restorative period of sleep
(dreams occur too)
Personal Behavior
Academic Performance
Cognition
-Children that had fragmented sleep scored lower on the Neurobehavioral Function tests that required more complex skills
-Decreased Processing Speed
-Sleep deprivation can diminish cognitive test scores equal to that of a BAC of 0.1%
Decreased Verbal Comprehension
-Picture Vocabulary Tests
-Synonym Tests
-Antonym Tests
-Verbal Analogy Test
Kristen L. Bub, Joseph A. Buckhalt, and Mona El-Sheikh; 2011
Decreased Ability
to Multi-Task

A. M. Williamson and Anne-Marie Feyer, 2000
Avi Sadeh, Reut Gruber, and Amiram Raviv; 2002
A. M. Williamson and Anne-Marie Feyer, 2000
-Has introduced concept of "microsleeping" to researchers
"Performance decrements occurred with increasing sleep deprivation for both speed and accuracy measures of the dual task tests"
-More demanding tasks that require increased brain activity become harder to sustain
-Decreased Reaction Time
Emotional Regulation
Depressive Symptoms
Personal Behavior
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70% of adolescents do not get the recommended 8-10 hours of sleep
According to the CDC
rigidity to predetermined bedtimes
restlessness while sleeping
(Sapin)
Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem are positively correlated with consistent sleep deprivation
There is a potential link between earlier waking times in adolescent girls and acceptance of gender roles
"...the primary emotional changes following sleep loss suggest a decrease in the ability to control, inhibit, or modify emotional responses to bring them into line with long-term goals, social roles, or other learned principles"
Moderators
Dahl, 1999
“Poor sleepers” displayed more behavioral problems as registered on the CBCL than those who got a good amount of sleep on a school night
Sadeh, 2002
Process
Possible Solutions
Giannotti & Cortesi, 2002
Wolfson & Carskadon, et. al., 1998
Z
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By eighth grade, the less hours of sleep the adolescent got, the more depressive symptoms were apparent and the lower their self-esteem was
Fredriksen, 2004
How Sleep Loss Directly Affects The Brain
-the neurons (brain cells) aren't given time to go through the restorative process
-the cerebral cortex is inhibited
Frontal Lobe
Prefrontal Cortex
Left Frontal Lobe
Amygdala
Hypothalamus
familial influences
increasingly busy schedules
distractions
region/location of home
-sleep apnea
-ADHD
-Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
Gender
Socioeconomic status
Race

$

$

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Race as a Moderator
Gender as a Moderator
SES as a Moderator
Exposed to more stressors [stereotype threat]
"In relation to gender-related effects…in comparison to boys, girls had lower levels of sleep activity…better sleep efficiency…and longer sleep duration"
At the beginning of sixth grade, girls reported more sleep than boys, yet they reported a sharper decline over time than hours of sleep than boys
Bub, Buckhalt, El-Sheikh, 2011
Buckhalt, El-Sheikh, Keller, 2007
Fredriksen, 2004
Earlier Onset of Puberty
Expected Gender Roles
-Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
Williams, 1999
Dissent
David K. Randall
argues to break the eight-hour-block mandate
Sleep Aids
More than 180,000 people under age 20 took sleep medications in 2004
None have been approved by the F.D.A.
Diphenhydramine
decreases alertness and
neural-cognitive
performance
Dr. Clete A. Kushida
Used to "buy time"
Prescribed for
the sake of
the parents
Sleeping pills
are not safe
School Reform
In conclusion ...
GO SLEEP
"Just get more sleep" is not reasonable
Edina, Minnesota
A 7:25 am-2:10 pm day changed to
an 8:30 am-3:10 pm day
Fewer students seeking help for stress relief due to academic pressures
Improved attendance
Increase in continuous enrollment
Less tardiness
Students making fewer trips to the school nurse
Gaining an average of one hour of sleep per night
Eating breakfast more frequently
Being able to complete more homework during school
Students seemed more alert in class
A calmer atmosphere in the hallways and cafeteria
Fewer disciplinary referrals to the principal
Wahlstrom, 2002
Massachusetts
Wolfson et al., 2007
A comparative study of 7th and 8th graders at different schools:
one started at 7:15 a.m. & the other started at 8:37 a.m.
inadequate sleep
struggling to stay awake
late to class four times more often
report sleeping an hour longer
had better transcripts
How do different behaviors and academic endeavors influence sleep patterns?
How do different sleep patterns influence behaviors and academic endeavors?
-The effect loss of sleep has on academic performance and personal behavior
-Causes for Lack of Sleep
-Moderators of Sleep
Academic Performance
Personal Behavior
names
Neurological vs. Psychological
Our Survey
Physical Symptoms
Full transcript