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The Americans Chapter 15 Section 2

The Problems of Urbanization
by

James Eskew

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of The Americans Chapter 15 Section 2

The Problems of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force people to contend with problems of housing,
transportation, water, and sanitation. LEARN ABOUT the rapid growth of American cities in the late 1800's and early 1900's
TO UNDERSTAND the promise and problems of urbanization. TERMS & NAMES urbanization
row house
dumbbell tenement
Social Gospel movement
settlement house
Jane Addams Rapid urbanization occurred in the late 19th century in the Northeast & Midwest Most immigrants settled in cities because of the available jobs & affordable housing By 1910, immigrants made up more than half the population of 18 major American cities MIGRATION FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Urban Opportunities HARD LIVING An Italian immigrant smokes a pipe in his makeshift home under New York's Rivington Street Dump, 1890. One American's Story
In 1870, at age 21, Jacob Riis left his native Denmark and arrived penniless in the United States. Like many other immigrants, he experienced hunger, homelessness, and life in the slums. Riis overcame the challanges of living in a new country, however, and eventually became a journalist and a tireless reformer. He used his talents to expose the conditions in which he and grown up - the overcrowded, airless, filthy temements that still housed New York City's poor. As many as 12 people slept in rooms such as this one in New York City, photographed by Jacob Riis about 1889. The rent was five cents per night. A PERSONAL VOICE Be a little careful, please. The hall is dark and your might stumble over the children pitching pennies in the back there. Not that it would hurt them; kicks and cuffs are their daily diet. They have little else...Close? [stuffy] Yes! What would you have? All the fresh air that enters these stairs is from the hall-door that is forever slamming...Here is a door. Listen! That short hacking cough, that tiny helpless wail - what do they mean?...The child is dying with measles. With half a chance it might have lived; but it had none. That dark bedroom killed it.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives Making a living in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was not easy. Natural and economic disasters had hit farmers hard, both in Europe and in the United States, and the promise of industrial jobs drew millions of people to American cities. The urban population expoloded, jumping from 10 milion to 54 million between 1870 and 1920. This rapid urban growth not only revitalized the cities but also created serious problems. As Jacob Riis observed firsthhand, these problems had a powerful inpact on the new urban poor. Chapter 15 Section 2 Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities
Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood
1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence
Find segregation, discrimination in North too
Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension Urban Problems Housing
working-class families live in houses on outskirts or boardinghouses
Later, row houses built for single families
Immigrants take over row houses, 2–3 families per house
Tenements—multifamily urban dwellings, are overcrowded, unsanitary Transportation
Mass transit—move large numbers of people along fixed routes
By 20th century, transit systems link city to suburbs Water
1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare
Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908 Sanitation
Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection
Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses
- often do not do job properly
By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments Crime
As population grows, thieves flourish
Early police forces too small to be effective Fire
Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters
Most firefighters volunteers, not always available
1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments
Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer Reformers Mobilize The Settlement House Movement
Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty
Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation through service to poor
Settlement houses—community centers in slums, help immigrants
Run by college-educated women, they:
- provide educational, cultural, social services
- send visiting nurses to the sick
- help with personal, job, financial problems
Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889 Homeless at the Turn of the Century
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