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Fall of Communism: End of USSR
Transcript of Fall of Communism: End of USSR
The Revolutions of 1989
were part of a revolutionary wave
that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe
The events began in Poland in 1989,
and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania
One feature common was the extensive use of campaigns of
demonstrating opposition to the continuation of one-party rule and contributing to the pressure for change
Fall Berlin Wall
Ronald Reagan (USA) Mikhail Gorbachev (USSR)
Hungary dismantles a physical part of the wall, leading to an exodus of Germans through Hungary.
East Germany react and force them to return, they do not obey and made mass demonstrations in Budapest, adding pressure to the situation
East Germans authorities in Czechoslovakia allow them to cross over in train and return.
of late 1989
Six points check open their gates
9 November 1989
demolition works started and continued over the following days and weeks, with people nicknamed Mauerspechte (wall woodpeckers) using various tools to chip off souvenirs.
Fall of Communism: End of USSR
Poland organize itself with a new Political Party: Solidarity.
This party won an
in a partially free election in Poland leading to the
peaceful fall of Communism in that country in the summer of 1989.
Hungary physically dismantled its section of the Iron Curtain
leading to a mass
exodus of East Germans
through Hungary and destabilizing East Germany.
This would lead to
in cities such as Leipzig
End of USSR
The Soviet Union was dissolved by the end of 1991, resulting in 15 countries.
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan
Declaring their independence from the Soviet Union in the course of the years 1990-91 and being succeeded by
Russia in December 1991
In the years immediately following 1989:
The fall of Apartheid system ("the state of being apart"was a system of racial segregation in South Africa
legislation by the National Party (NP),
the governing party from 1948 to 1994. Under apartheid, the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were curtailed
The end of Chilean Military Dictatorship)
The democratization of Ghana
The adoption of varying forms of market economy
immediately resulted in a general decline in living standards
Consensus of Washington
Washington Consensus was developed in 1989
by English economist John Williamson to refer to a set of
10 relatively specific economic policy prescriptions that he considered constituted the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries
based on institutions such as the
International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the US Treasury Department
The prescriptions encompassed policies in such areas as macroeconomic stabilization, economic opening with respect to both trade and investment, and the expansion of market forces within the domestic economy
NEOLIBERALISM: support extensive economic liberalization
policies such as
privatization, fiscal austerity, free trade, and reductions in government spending
in order to
enhance the role of the private sector in the economy.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization of 188 countries working to foster
global monetary cooperation
, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and
reduce poverty around the world.
WB: The World Bank is a United Nations international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs