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Chapter 7 : Human Sexuality

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William Cockrell

on 7 November 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 7 : Human Sexuality

Chapter 7 : Human Sexuality
Sexuality in Culture
Age :
most cultures have some "age of consent" rule. Not all do though.
Martial Status :
this can have two implications. Sex only in marriage OR social views of infidelity.
Sex of partner :
does the culture accept only heterosexual relationships?
These listed social factors of human sexuality have changed throughout history.
Compare sexuality in American colonial times to current views of sexuality in America.
Three additional factors : Industrial Revolution, Sex for reproduction only, and Birth Control.
The Sexual Revolution
American Sexual Revolution :
movement that was both unconscious and intentional during the 1960s. Encouraged social norms to become more tolerant of sexual behaviors.
Factors that encouraged the sexual revolution : the creation of birth control, Alfred Kinsey's research on sex, women entering the work force, and feminism.
Double Standard :
overused term that refers to different expectations of the sexes. From a research perspective, it normally references men being allowed to be sexual prior to marriage, but women are expected to wait.
Sex researchers and gender theorists argue that most American sexual values combine sex and power. Therefore, the dominate group (male) is able to enjoy sexual freedom while they display power through sexualizing the submissive group (female)
"Demands" of sex and gender theorists: equal pay for the sexes, accurate female depictions in pornography, sexual violence, contraception, and abortion.
The Sexual Counterrevolution
Upper-class, educated, liberal, females dominated the supporters of the sexual revolution.
Many conservative and highly religious people to this day still deny the arguments for the sexual revolution.
The 1970s cultural values revolted against the sexual revolution and supported a return to "family values".
Since the sexual revolution, half of Americans have sexual intercourse for the first time by graduating high school. This stat has remained relatively stable since the 1970s according to the CDC.
Why is it that during a return to "family values", we typically report an increase in Viagra sales?
Sexual Orientation
Sexual Orientation :
the
degree
of emotional and sexual attraction to a specific sexual category.
Heterosexuality :
being attracted to the opposite sex
Homosexuality :
being attracted to the same sex. Estimates place homosexuals @ around 10% of the global population (Kinsey, 1948; Gates, 2011).
Bisexuality :
being attracted to both sexes.
Pansexuality :
argument that attraction can occur without sex as a primary basis. Limited scientific support.
Fluidity is a very hard variable to measure when it comes to sexual orientation. It is hard to measure sexual attraction from sexual behaviors (e.g., this works for all forms of sexual orientation).
If heterosexual people cannot remember when they first were attracted to the opposite sex, is it appropriate to ask a homosexual or bisexual person this?
Direct quote from a textbook (Coon & Mitterer, 12th edition, pg. 422).
The textbook authors give these interesting arguments about
equal expectations
between different sexual orientations :
Sexual Orientation is a deep part of personal identity. Starting with their earliest erotic feelings, most people remember being attracted to either the opposite sex or the same sex. The chances are practically nil of an
exclusively
heterosexual or homosexual person being "converted" from one orientation to the other. If you are heterosexual, you are probably certain that nothing could ever make you have homoerotic feelings. If so, then you know how homosexual persons feel about the prospects for changing their sexual orientation.
Yet again, we have to understand that if heterosexuality is primarily determined by genetic and hormonal factors, the same perspective should be taken for homosexual and bisexual orientations of attraction.
One study found that if one identical twin is homosexual or bisexual, there is a 50-percent chance that the other twin is too. Similar findings lead some researchers to estimate that sexual orientation is 30 to 70 percent genetic (Mustanski, Chivers, & Bailey, 2002).
Acknowledging this reliable research, how can we say that same-sex couples will "turn" their children gay?
Asexuality :
no sexual attraction to either sex. There are many misconceptions about people who are asexual. Many asexual people have healthy, romantic relationships. Very few people are asexual because of traumatic sexual abuse.
Rates of asexuality increase with 65+ people. This is both biological and social.
Homosexuality
From an anthropological perspective, homosexuality is not a new phenomenon. Evidence has been found all the way back to the Paleolithic Period of mankind (10,000 B.C.).
You need to remember that any estimates of sexual orientation are
UNDERESTIMATES
.
Survey data estimates that 4% of Americans view themselves as homosexual or bisexual. This equates to 12 million people in America.
Homosexual adolescences often approach sexual relationships later than heterosexual adolescences due to cultural norms.
How do we classify people that have homosexual desires but NEVER ACT on them? Clinical psychologists argue that the person makes this decision. That means we respect how people identify themselves even if we do not agree.
One act does not determine sexual orientation. It is a repeated, consistent trend of behavior that determines sexuality.
The most glaring differences among different sexual orientations is commonly attributed to social treatment.
Differential Treatment in Society
It is still legal to fire or not hire a person because of sexual orientation in 18 states. It is legal in South Dakota to fire or refuse employment to somebody based on sexual orientation.
This discrimination also extends to housing and medical benefits.
LGBTQ teenagers have the highest homelessness rate and highest truancy problem of any other teenage groups.
18 states have no hate crime protections for homosexual people. There is a link between state protections and hate crime occurrences.
The American Psychological Association officially removed homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1975 and being transgendered was just removed in 2014.
As previously mentioned in class, conversion therapy is illegal in many states, but yet again, the same states that have no hate crime or discrimination protections also allow children as young as 10 years of age to undergo sexual conversion therapy.
Social rejection for
any minority group
typically leads to higher rates of : anxiety, depression, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, and suicidal thoughts.
Gay men are the second highest at-risk group for suicide. The highest group are elderly widowed men over 65+. For gay men, as one ages, the chances of suicide typically decrease.
Homosexual people tend to create stronger "social buffers" to help offset the social rejection and discrimination they commonly experience.
Pornography
"It's hard to define, but I know it when I see it" Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart
Pornography :
any sensory information that is intentionally created to elicit sexual arousal.
Erotica :
"artistic portrayal" of nudity. Does not require sexual depictions.
The pornography business makes an estimated $5 billion dollars a year.
Why would pornography be viewed as a social problem? Depictions of women, encourages deviant behavior (?), child pornography, and sex trafficking.
We have public opinion that viewing pornography increases aggression, but very little experiments.
Prostitution
Prostitution :
claimed to be "the oldest profession" in the world and is described as selling sexual services.
15% of American men in a national survey reported they had paid for sex at least once.
The larger the gap of rights between men and women, higher rates of female prostitution are found in the country.
90% of prostitutes are women and 10% are men.
There is a hierarchy of prostitution : call girls, massage parlor/escort service girls, and finally streetwalkers.
Many case studies report that a common theme of childhood abuse, rape, and incest is prevalent among prostitutes.
One factor that determines the "quality of life" for a prostitute is if she is required to share her expenses (with a pimp) or if she is a free agent
Legality of Prostitution
In 2010, 50,000 people were arrested for crimes related to prostitution. 37,500 arrests were women and 12,500 were men.
COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics) :
a pro-prostitution organization that is trying to advocate prostitution to be legally regulated instead of criminalized.
Calls girls are typically never arrested, almost all prostitution arrests are streetwalkers.
There are many more Caucasian prostitutes, but we see that the arrest rates for African-American prostitutes are much higher (even though they make up a much smaller portion).
Negative outcomes of prostitution : drug abuse, STD transmission, higher rates of violent crime against women, sex trafficking.
Child Prostitution / Sex Tourism :
many high income men travel to poorer countries where child prostitutes are legal.
Teenage Pregnancy
On average, around 750,000 teenage girls become pregnant every year in the United States.
Mississippi has continuously reported having the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the country. Mississippi also has the lowest rates of sex education classes....
In current times, the World Health Organization reports the outcomes for teenage pregnancies : 15% are miscarried, 27% have abortions, and 58% keep their baby (Papa Don't Preach).
Another myth is that teenage pregnancy rates are increasing. Teenage pregnancy rates are actually decreasing!
Remember, 50 years ago pregnant teenagers had shotgun weddings or went to visit an aunt for the year (i.e., teenage pregnancies aren't hidden anymore, therefore it seems like they increased)
Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood
The three major factors that influence teenage pregnancy : lack of sex education, little access to contraception, and family poverty.
There are no stats for pregnant teenagers in America who experience unsafe abortions.
Having a child earlier tends to decrease life long financial stability when compared to people of the same age who do not have children.
Common characteristics of teenage parenting behaviors : less parental warmth and involvement (grandparents usually pick up the slack), domestic violence, child abuse, repeated parental divorce and remarriage.
"Girls at risk for early pregnancy do poorly in school, engage in alcohol and drug use, have a childhood history of aggressive and antisocial behavior, associate with deviant peers, and experience higher rates of depression" (Berk, pg. 378, 2010).
Further descriptions of sexuality
Heterosexism:
the belief that heterosexuality is superior. Also relates to heterosexual people do not reflect on homosexual relationships often.
Homophobia:
the hatred of homosexual and bisexual people. Is not based on fear like name implies. The same concept as racism or sexism.
Transvestites:
term often used to reference drag queens. These people typically only "dress-up" as the other sex. They still relate to their biological sex.
Transgenderism:
People who choose to identify as a different sex. May describe feeling intense forms of anxiety in their current body.
Many transgendered people have no desire to undergo any hormonal or surgical procedures.
Doing Gender:
the end result of gender typing and socialization. This is the public or private performance of gendered behaviors.
Transgenderism and the Body
To recap, transvestites do not want to change their body. Transgendered people often feel a strong desire to alter their body.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT):
The process by which men are given estrogen and women are given testosterone. The goal is to reduce the presence of their natural secondary sex characteristics and develop them for the other sex.
In America, HRT typically lasts around two years and it is strongly suggested the person goes through psychological therapy at the same time.
Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS):
updated term we use instead of "sex change". The doctors remove the original genitalia and replace it with the desired genitalia.
After 1978, most insurances WILL cover a sexual reassignment surgery if the psychologist determines this is necessary for their well being.
Similar to gay and bisexual teenagers aware of sexuality, transgendered teenagers tend to always know they wanted to be in the other body.
Puberty tends to be very stressful for transgendered teens. They are receiving the physical characteristics they do not want and this causes anxiety and self-hate.
Biological Essentialism and Transgenderism:
"My body and gender do not match, I have to fix my body". This references our gendered/sex beliefs are so strong people will have surgery to follow the expectations.
Social Constructionism and Transgenderism:
These people are "doing gender" in their own way. These people are creating/constructing new ways to express gender and sexuality.
Development of Sexual Behavior
Nerve cells attached to sexual organs are active at birth. Kinsey's research verifies that these nerve endings do not develop at puberty like originally believed.
The important aspect is that just because these physiological structures are fully formed, psychologically they are not ready for any form of physical intimacy.
Like many processes in the body, sexual arousal is not controlled by one single system in the body.
Erogenous Zones :
Stimulation of erogenous zones typically leads to an increase in sexual arousal. You are college students, I don't need to tell you the specific places.
Medical examinations and rape are examples used to highlight that in certain situations stimulation of the erogenous zones do NOT produce pleasure. This leads us to believe it is not all physical stimulation.
Supporting the previous statements, it is common knowledge that people can become sexually aroused without the presence of any physical stimulation
Sexual Scripts :
schemas that are specifically related to sexual behavior. "The Rules of Sex". There is diversity among different cultures.
Men and women do not differ on sexual arousal, social expectations of women typically force them to dismiss many desires.
Average American Sexual Behavior
A man's sexual peak is at 18 whereas a woman's peak is at 30-35.
Monogamy is, by far, the most common mate selection pattern.
Men's level of masturbation remains stable throughout life. More women admit to masturbating from ages 27-50.
Around 40% of the population refuse to answer the question
Sex Drive :
a measurement of sexual arousal that is unique to each individual. Primarily measured by how sensitive a person is to the sex hormones they are producing.
Being tipsy lowers inhibitions which makes it easier to flirt. Being drunk typically leads to...failure.
Sex Segregation and Rituals
One sociologist argued that when societies have rigid sex-segregated rituals there tends to be less positive opinions about women's rights.
Societies that encourage "men only" activities usually report the lowest levels of paternal involvement in childcare.
Wide range of sex-segregated rituals of past and present : Gladiator fights, religious practices, voting, poker night, and education.
Three modern examples of sex-segregation activities: Hunting Clubs, Frat Clubs, and Man Caves.
Sex Segregation:
the concept practiced in various cultures where the sexes are separated based on various factors. The most common form is occupational sex segregation.
The more extreme the sex segregation, the less power that women typically have.
The Dark Side of Sex/Gender Rituals
Gang Rape:
many gangs, fraternities, and military groups have used gang rape as an initiation tactic.
Key points associated with gang rape: objectifying women as sexual objects for men, male domination, the ability to "show off" to male friends.
Many researchers have noted that pornography depicting heterosexual group-sex often has explicit depictions of gang rape.
For very heterosexual men with hidden or repressed homosexual feelings, gang rape is an "acceptable" way for males to interact sexually (to a limit)
It is not often discussed, but gay men are sometimes raped by groups of straight men during hate crime attacks. This highlights that sexual arousal usually takes a background to feelings of misogyny, power, disgust, and domination.
Initiation Rituals:
Highly detailed rituals unique to a specific culture. The rituals are usually associated with coming-of-age situations.
Circumcision and clitoridectomies are two examples of initiation rituals based on biological sex.
Male and Female Circumcision
Circumcision:
a common ritual where excess skin is removed from a boy's penis. Western countries tend to do this at birth, but more tribal societies often wait until puberty.
Sociologists argue that circumcision is a symbolic image of masculinity.
Societies that place a heavy emphasis on circumcision tend to view the two sexes are more different than similar.
Research continues to change on which is healthier. Circumcision tends to be more hygienic and reduces the risk of infections and cancer. The procedure also reduces the chances of HPV and HIV transmissions.
Opponents (surprisingly, some mothers can get fired up about this topic) support research that argues the most sensitive glands are removed during circumcision. The second argument is that the procedure should be a choice of the adult male, not his parents.
Clitoridectomy:
the removal of a woman's clitoris, usually against her will. Very rarely is this done for medical treatment. The World Health Organization estimates 130 million girls and women have experienced some form of a clitoridectomy.
Infibulation:
the labia majora is sewn together with a very small opening left for urination.
Both of these practices are common throughout Africa with no anesthesia or sterile, medical environment.
Many women who have underwent these procedures report no sexual pleasure after the "operations".
The primary reason that these cultures practice clitoridectomy is to curb women's sexual activities.
The World Health Organization has made great strides in trying to reduce this social problem.
Sexual Maturation
We have already covered the differences between
Primary
and
Secondary sex characteristics
. Be sure to understand the differences!
Primary sex characteristics are ALWAYS present, but secondary sex characteristics do not develop until puberty.
Like childhood development, there is variability in amount of time sexual maturation takes, but the order that adolescents experience is normally the same.
Menarche :
a girl's first menstrual cycle. The average age for North American girls is 12.5 and the range is (10-14).
Girls must be physically mature before they experience menarche. This is a "biological prevention" so girls typically cannot get pregnant until their body grows AND they reach menarche.
Girls typically do not release an egg from her ovum for up to the first 18 months of her menstrual cycle. This means they could not get pregnant during this time. It is important to understand that this pattern is NOT across the board!
Spermarche :
the first ejaculation a boy experiences. On average it occurs around 13.5 and ranges from (12-16). Spermarche is influenced by social reasons more than the biological reasons of menarche.
Individual Differences In Puberty
Yet again, identical twin studies find that they typically experience puberty at the same time unlike fraternal twins (this supports that genetics influence the onset of puberty).
Girls who are overweight and have a higher storage of fat tend to enter puberty earlier than other girls.
Girls who compete in "weight controlled" sports such as running, gymnastics, or figure skating typically experience puberty much later. These girls may NEVER experience a period if they have 0% body fat. This is very common for women who are anorexic.
The leads into the fact that girls in developing countries with high levels of malnutrition typically do not experience menarche until 14-16.
African-American girls typically experience menarche about 6 months-1 year earlier than Caucasian-American girls.
Scientists cannot agree "why", but we reliably find that children who experience family problems such as divorce, abuse, or rape all enter puberty earlier than children who do not experience this.
The younger the mother, the younger the child enters puberty? Research is still ongoing for this one
The Birds & The Bees
97% of American teenagers receive formal sex education by the time they are 18 (Matinez et al., 2012).
Parents talk to both sons and daughters about HIV, but girls are much more likely to receive talk about contraception (thus, putting the responsibility on 16 year old girls)
Typically, more parents report being embarrassed about the talk than the actual children.
If parents are unwilling to sexually educate their children, should they complain about sex education classes?
Siblings are often one way children learn knowledge about sex.
School-Based Sex Education
Comprehensive Sexuality Education:
Almost all public schools in the United States have some form of sex education.
90% of American parents support the idea of sex education in school. That means around 10% of parents in America want abstinence-only classes.
In 2001, George W. Bush created a federal program that gave $1 Billion dollars in abstinence only programs. Little to no funding was given for comprehensive sex education.
In 2012, Congress allowed a bill that funded $180 million to sex education and $55 million in abstinence-only programs. Congress ruled this year they will no longer fund abstinence only programs.
Teenagers who take virginity pledges simply deny they took one when they have sex.
TEENAGERS WHO HAVE COMPREHENSIVE SEX EDUCATION ARE LESS LIKELY TO HAVE SEX COMPARED TO ABSTINENCE-ONLY PEERS (KOHLER ET AL., 2008; WHO, 2012; HALL ET AL., 2012).
Teenage pregnancies are two times higher in areas that have abstinence only programs (the South).
Sexuality in Middle Adulthood
When studying married couples, we see that marital satisfaction is the most reliable indicator for
frequency
of sexual activity.
This can work two ways : a happy relationship leads to more sex AND/OR more sex in a relationship tends to create the perspective the relationship is good.
The longer the couple stays together, the more accepting and comfortable they become with their partner (which in turn increases sexual satisfaction).
Overall, studies most commonly report that frequency slightly drops, but satisfaction and spontaneity increases after the age of 50.
There are much less studies of non-married older people and their sexual behavior.
Socially, widows are encouraged to become celibate. Widowers....not so much.
Dating In Later Life
Contrary to popular belief, elderly people still have sexual desires. A common stereotype is that all older people become asexual.
If elderly people do not have sex, it is usually due to a medical problem, not lack of desire (Butler & Lewis, 2003).
The primary reason that older people do not have sex is similar to why younger people do not....lack of a partner (AARP, 2002).
Women are more likely to become celibate after widowhood than men who have become widowers (Huyck, 1983).
American norms dictate that women age faster than men
Think about the "cougar example". This is an
aged double standard.
Around 45% of single Americans over the age of 50 are dating somebody.
Widows often report very slow rates of dating whereas widowers often have short dating ranges (less than 6 months) before marriage.
Changes in menopause
The reproductive organs shrink.
The clitoris becomes less sensitive (over 75% of all sexual stimulation for a women is in her clitoris).
Women encounter vaginal dryness, they experience a dramatic reduction in the vagina's natural lubrication. This is a primary reason that women during menopause report sex as painful.
Mood fluctuations
Hot flashes and night sweats
Reproduction in Aging Men
"Both quantity and motility of sperm decrease from the twenties on". Motility?? It means the swimming ability....
Men do not experience any form of menopause, technically, they can father children until death.
Studies show that older men tend to father children that have higher rates of schizophrenia, depression, alcoholism, and cerebral palsy. An older mother does not produce these symptoms in children.
Around 30% of men experience some form of erectile dysfunction, but most issues are actually psychological and/or health related (e.g., being overweight, smoking, drinking, drugs, diet, etc).
Usually taking care of these above mentioned factors alleviates the problem. Only a quarter of men using Viagra are believed to actually need it due improper blood flow.
American Female Standards
Since the late 1970s, beauty standards of women have become less realistic. The most common example is that America admires taller women, BUT their weight has decreased. This goes against natural weight proportions.
The 1954 Miss America was 5'8" and weighed 132. The 2013 Miss America winner was also 5'8" but weighs 118 pounds!
1954
2013
In 1975, the average model weighed around
8%
less than the average American woman. Today, the average fashion model weighs
20-23% less
than the average American woman.
The average American woman is 5'4", weighs 163 pounds, and wears a size 14. The average American model is 5'11", weighs 117, and wears a size 2.
We rarely "shame" models by saying most of them are often 25% below their ideal weight. Imagine if a model was 25% above their ideal weight (are they called "normal" like below weight models?)
10 years ago, plus size models wore sizes 12-18. Today, they start at size 6....
Around
5-10% of American girls
(up to 10 million girls) have been affected by either anorexia or bulimia.
Only
1-2% of British girls
are affected by anorexia or bullimia.
In America, women of color are less influenced by standards of beauty. They can focus on subcultural standards of beauty (e.g., Black is Beautiful movement).
Male Standards of Beauty
Men do not report wanting to look better. That doesn't mean men do not care about appearance.
Men in America are more likely to say "I need to get in shape", "I need to bulk/buff up", "I want to get juiced".
In 1974, G.I. Joe was
5'10"
, had a
31" waist, 44" chest
, and
12" biceps
. A G.I. Joe in 2002 was
5'10
, had a
28" waist
,
50" chest
, and
22" biceps
.
Two trends that may be related:
the media DOES sexually objectify men now and men are now developing forms of body image issues.
People are less likely to diagnose male athletes as having eating disorders. We call it being "dedicated" to the sport.
Legal steroids being prescribed has went from 1.75 million in 1997 to 4.5 million in 2010.
8% of male teenagers in a study report that they have used creatine.
Recommended doses
might cause side effects such as muscle tissue disease, brain seizures, and heart arrhythmia.
2% of seniors reported using anabolic steroids. Steroid abuse symptoms are VERY aversive and even more dramatic for growing teenagers.
Symptoms include: acne, excessive and extreme outbursts, more body hair, high blood pressure, damage to the liver, circulatory system, and testes. Sterility is usually the end result.
Cosmetic and Aesthetic Surgery
In 1992, there were around 413,000 procedures in America. In 2011, around 13.8 million procedures were completed.
Breast Augmentation:
By far the most popular cosmetic procedure. It has increased almost 500% since cosmetic surgery became more common. Augmentation refers only to increasing size.
Around 13% of cosmetic patients today are men.
The textbook does not discuss the social problem of minors altering their appearance before it is finished developing.
http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=27675&xtid=30327&loid=3523
http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/just-the-facts.pdf
Primary motivation to take Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Abortion in the United States
Abortion :
the intentional termination of a pregnancy.
The CDC reports that around 1.2 million abortions are performed a year in America.
Unmarried women in their twenties make up 85% of women who have abortions in America.
African-American women have higher rates of abortion than Caucasian women (there is institutional discrimination here!!)
Roe v. Wade :
created in 1973, which made abortion legal again in America.
By the age of 45, 33% of women in the world will have at least one abortion.
2% of all American women have an abortion. This should help you see this is a GLOBAL issue.
60% of women who have an abortion already have at least one child.
69% of women who have an abortion in the United States are below the poverty line.
88% of all abortions in the United States are in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, always discussing late term abortions is a scare-tactic.
73% of women who have abortions report being religious
Two main reasons women in America have abortions is unemployment or no health insurance.
There is more misinformation than truth about abortion in the United States.
Additional Abortion Regulations
Hyde Amendment :
Women cannot use medicaid or most health insurances for an abortion. The only exception is when their life is in danger.
The common cultural opinion is that most women would prefer to die before aborting a child that will take her life.
Most people believe that late term abortions are illegal, but for the most part many doctors are just unwilling to perform them.
All abortion clinics are required by law to have at least one licensed gynecologist.
Women have a higher chance dying driving a car, playing football, driving a motorcycle, or getting a penicillin shot than dying from a legally safe abortion in the first 12 weeks (Deprez, 2013).
.03% of patients that have abortions are required to be hospitalized.
The Center for Medical Progress (VERY misleading name) argues that women who have abortions are at higher risk of breast cancer, infertility, substance abuse, and suicide. Scientific research does NOT support any of these claims.
Since 1994, researchers believe that abortion has dropped by 43% because of the availability of emergency contraception.
Emergency Contraception:
abortion in the first 9 weeks of no menstrual cycle. No surgical procedure is required, the patients typically take RU-486, also known as mifepristone. This is NOT the morning after pill.
Rape and Sexual Assault
There is a very large disconnect between "common knowledge" and empirical research on sexual assault.
Many universities are uncomfortable mentioning that university campuses are one of the most common places that sexual assault occurs.
1 in 6 women will experience rape or attempted rape in her lifetime.
Like many other "hot button" issues, only 1 in 5 rapes are reported. Therefore, the rates are much higher than estimated.
32,000 rapes result in pregnancy every year and 3% of reported rape cases result in STD infections.
DO NOT BELIEVE THAT MOST RAPE OCCURS BY RANDOM STRANGERS!!
75% of women who report rape state that the perpetrator is somebody they know (primarily their husband, intimate partner, or friend).
10-14% of women experience marital rape
25% of all college females will experience sexual assault during their time at college.
Acquaintance (Date) Rape :
common form of rape among college students where women feel extreme pressure into performing sexual acts.
Rape Myths and Realities
Myths :

A woman who appears alone and dresses provocatively is "asking for it"
When a woman says "no" she really means "yes"
Many women who are raped enjoy it.
If a woman goes home with a man, she is interested in sex.
If she is sexually active, she is lying about rape.
Reality:
America's male dominated society is a "rape culture"
Rape Victims often receive more "punishment" from the justice system than the rapists.
Victims have to "prove they were raped" instead of "proving the criminal raped me".
Men who believe rape myths are more likely to commit sexual assault.
Men.....DO NOT RAPE!! It is that simple!
http://www.montana.edu/health/voice/menagainstrape.html
The White Ribbon Campaign: http://www.whiteribbon.ca/
National Organization For Men Against Sexism
Men Can Stop Rape
Harvard Men Against Rape
Tulane Men Against Rape
Take Back The Night
The Vagina Monologues
Walk A Mile In Her Shoes/Red Dress Run
HIV & AIDS
We have automatic implicit associations with gay men and AIDS. Lesbians tend to not experience this associations (only one woman has been confirmed by the medical field to have contracted HIV in a lesbian relationship).
From the 1980s - 2000, gay men were the largest group to be HIV+. Since the early 2000s, African-American women are now the largest group to be HIV+ in the United States
It does not matter who is the largest group to have HIV, we are all still humans!
Around 25 million people have died from AIDS. Up to 34 million people are living with AIDS (not HIV) across the world.
If left untreated, HIV will progress to AIDS (Auto Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
In 2012, there were 1.3 million people living with HIV in the United States. Around 150,000 (12%) are unaware of their status (CDC, 2012).
Safe Sex:
making "sound and rational" judgements about sexual partners, not sharing needles, and using condoms. Now, Truvada is also considered a form of safe sex.
Around 1.2 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with AIDS by 2014 (CDC, 2014).
Examples of a Rape Culture
"Beat it up"
"Pound it"
Depictions of pornography where people are hit, slapped, and kicked during intimacy.
"Only fat, ugly girls complain about rape"
Calling an intoxicated person the "weak member of the herd"
Do NOT be like Eminem
"Artistic Comments" by a Gentleman
“Sit down beside her like a spider, hi there girl, you mighta Heard of me before, see whore, you’re the kind of girl that I’d assault and rape then figure why not try not to make your pussy wider? F*ck you with an umbrella, then open it up while the sh*t’s inside ya. I’m the kinda guy that’s mild but I might flip and get a little bit wilder” from "
Stay Wide Awake
"
“See me I’m all up on your bitch means I’mma rape her. All I got for these hoes is dick, duct tape and a stapler. So bitch, you better look for table scraps to scrape up” from "
Celebrity
"
“Tryin’ to send the bitch back to her maker. And if you got a daughter older then 15, I’mma rape her. Take her on the living room floor, right there in front of you. Then ask you seriously, whatchu wanna do?”
DMX "X is Coming"
“Come on babe it’s your lucky day/ Shut your mouth, were gonna do it my way/ Come on baby don’t be afraid/ if it wasn’t for date rape I’d never get laid.”
Sublime "Date Rape"
Using sports OR video game terminology (e.g., Score, goal, level up, bonus points, etc) to reference sex.
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