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comparison between rational model and incrementalism
Transcript of comparison between rational model and incrementalism
the rational model is basically an ideal toward which organizational decision-making should approximate 3.R goals & means: 1.I Incrementalists seldom search for “one best way”, they end their search when they find “a way that will work” 2.I avoids big mistake
need for simplification and choice; incremental analysis is only a form of strategic analysis 3.I goals & means: Management of Public Policy Presented by
Khadija Abid Rational Model Topic Model is presented by Herbert A. Simon
Nobel prize in Economics in 1978
Also called Bounded rationality MODEL it stated as
it complements rationality as optimization, which views decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available. Another way to look at bounded rationality is that, because decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution, they instead apply their rationality only after having greatly simplified the choices available. Thus the decision-maker is a satisficer, one seeking a satisfactory solution rather than the optimal (best) one Steps involve Simplify the choices available
Make decision among different alternative
Choose most efficient alternative simon's table If we are given with three alternatuve and we do a cost/benefit analysis example Education
Infrastructure So we need to adopt Rational decision making which gives money on every projects(alternative) they will suffer In economics, a production–possibility frontier (PPF), sometimes called a production–possibility curve, production-possibility boundary or product transformation curve, is a graph that compares the production rates of two commodities that use the same fixed total of the factors of production. production –possibility frontier (PPF) On this curve Society Satiffaction level remains same. They least bother Indiffernce Curve society cannot go beyond this curve
this curve is also called value achievement curve Where Indifference curve and Productive possibility interact, Here maximum resources are used and maximum society satisfaction is also achieved Rationalism out of these two previous curve Spark an indifference curve is a graph showing different bundles of goods between which a consumer is indifferent. That is, at each point on the curve, the consumer has no preference for one bundle over another. One can equivalently refer to each point on the indifference curve as rendering the same level of utility (satisfaction) for the consumer an Indifference curve An indifference curve Productive Possibility curve
Indifference Curve Two curves There are no social values that are usually agreed upon,but only the values of specific groups and individuals ,many of which are conflicting.(interest groups)
Many conflicting values cannot be compared or weighted e.G IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO COMPARE OR WEIGH THE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL DIGNITY AGAINST TAX INCREASE. OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL POLICY MAKING
Large investments in existing programs and politics(sunk costs)prevent policy makers from reconsidering alternatives foreclosed by previous decisions. OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL POLICY MAKING (cont..) There are innumerable barriers to collecting all the information required to know all possible policy alternatives and consequences of each alternative including the cost of information gathering ,the availability of information and the time involved in its collection.
Neither predictive capacities of the social and behavioral sciences nor the predictive capacities of the physical and biological sciences are sufficiently advanced to enable policy makers to understand the full range of consequences of each policy alternative. OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL POLICY MAKING Policy makers even with most advanced computerized analytical techniques, do not have sufficient intelligence to calculate accurately cost benefit ratio when large number of diverse political, social, economic and cultural values are at stake.
Policy makers have personal needs,inhibitions and inadequacies which prevent them from performing in a highly rational manner. OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL POLICY MAKING (cont..) UNCERTAINITY ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF VARIOUS POLICY ALTERNATIVES COMPELS POLICY MAKERS TO STICK AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE TO THE PREVIOUS POLICIES TO REDUCE THE LIKELYHOOD OF DISTURBING UNANTICIPATED CONSEQUENCES.
THE SEGMENTALIZED NATURE OF POLICY MAKING IN LARGE BUREAUCRACIES MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO COORDINATE DECISION MAKING SO THAT THE INPUT OF ALL OF THE VARIOUS SPECIALISTS IS BROUGHT TO BEAR AT THE POINT OF DECISION. OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL POLICY MAKING (cont..) OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL
POLICY MAKING Deficiency of model Finished Obstacles of model comparison between Rationalism and incrementalism defining model (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Overview Gap between planning and implementation. Ignores role of people, entrepreneurs, leadership, etc.
Technical competence along is not enough (ignores the human factor).
Too mechanical an approach, organizations are more organic.
Models must be multidimensional and complex.
Predictions are often wrong; simple solutions may be overlooked.
The costs of rational-comprehensive planning may outweigh the cost savings of the policy. Deficiencies of Rationalism extremely influential in explaining foreign policy making
e.g. why China crossed the Yalu river; why Soviet Union decided to deploy missiles in Cuba and why the U.S. decided to resort to sea blockade to demand the dismantling of the missiles
the rational model is basically an ideal toward which organizational decision-making should approximate Dominant aspects of rational model Proceeds through Incremental Change
Involves mutual adjustment and negotiation
Policy is not made once and for all
under this model policy is continuation of
previous policy with minimum changes
existing programs, policies and expenditures are considered are as base Incrementalism Rational:
goals set before considering means Incremental:
goals & means considered together ANY QUESTIONS ? 4.I Theory-driven or practice- driven?
incremental: focus on comparison with similar problems 4.R Theory-driven or practice- driven?
rational: heavy use of theory