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The Evolution of Video Gaming in the 20th Century

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Jordan Marx

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of The Evolution of Video Gaming in the 20th Century

The 1990s
Thank you for listening!
In 50 short years video games have transformed from a little known
hobby into a mainstream form of entertainment creating a multi-billion
dollar industry.
First person shooter games became popular:
Halo, Call of Duty, Battlefield
Online games started having native support available
which allowed people to play each other in different
parts of the world
How video games transformed from a little known hobby into a multi-billion dollar industry in the US during the 20th century
The Evolution of Video Gaming in the 20th Century
The 2000s continued
The Early 1970s
Sanders Associates marketed their games to television manufacturers
1971 Magnavox purchased the games and named them 'Odyssey'
Odyssey had no processor or memory, and had a black and white display
Due to his contributions, Baer later came to be known as the “father of video games”
1969 Technology that allowed televisions to be used for games
1975 Better graphics so that televisions would not have to be
fit with a colored plastic overlay
1998 Wireless Game Controller
2001 In game directions
2002 Vibrating controller
Multi-billion dollar business in the U.S.
The arcade video industry outperformed the home gaming industry
Space Invaders & Pac-Man
Foreign firms eager to enter market
Advances in technology
Sped growth of video gaming systems that worked on televisions
1970s continued
Video game sales of home version Odyssey started climbing
Here is a commercial for Odyssey
Notice how the television had to be fitted with a color plastic overlay
1970s continued
Video Game Genres
1994 Entertainment Software Rating Board is created by the Entertainment Software Association to rate games
There are now seven ratings:
C=Early Childhood
E+10=Suitable for everyone ages 10 and up
T=Teen 13 and up
M=Mature 17 and up
A=Adult 18 and up
RP= not yet assigned
The Late 1960s
1966 Engineer Ralph Baer at Saunders Associates
Came up with the idea of creating video games to play on TV at home
Baer and co-workers invented their first game
Executive board felt the game was a waste of resources and time
The game was to change the color of a box on a television by pumping a lever
However they continued working and in 1967...
They transformed several popular games
(ping-pong, tennis, checkers, ...) into a
video game version
The history of video gaming can be traced back to 1952
Cambridge University student A. S. Douglas created a game for his doctoral dissertation
Called Noughts and Crosses
A tic-tac-toe game
Ran on a huge university computer
Used a rotary telephone as a controller

How This Relates to What We've Studied
Civilizations are closely involved with the technology of their day
Early civilizations played games with sticks and stones
Modern civilizations plays games with electronics and computers
Future games will involve technology that is not available today
Video Gaming has evolved with the advancement of modern technology

The Early 1960s
The first video game that was interactive was called Spacewar!
Created by another university student, from MIT in 1961
Toggle switches were used to control the speed and direction of ships and torpedoes
A huge transformation...in 50 years video games in the U.S. have gone from this:

About 10 users About 182 million users
$0 revenue $21 billion in revenue

Most Successful Video Game Companies

The 1950s
The 1980s
Hardware and software became more affordable
Handheld games became popular
Gaming systems for homes became more popular
1994, Sony released Playstation for home gaming, it sold over 100 million units
1996, Nintendo released their home version, called Nintendo 64, it was also a hit
Large arcades started to go out of business
Microsoft launched Xbox Live in 2002
First console system to contain as much hard disk space
as a PC
Powerful hardware and graphics capabilities
Halo released and was a huge hit
The Nintendo Wii was released in 2006 which allowed
an interactive gaming experience
Important Patents
1) Microsoft $ 10.1 billion
2) Sony $ 7.2 billion
3) Nintendo $ 6.5 billion
4) Blizzard Entertainment $ 4.9 billion
5) Electronic Arts $ 4.1 billion
6) Sega $ 3.3 billion
7) Ubisoft $ 1.6 billion
8) Square Enix $ 1.5 billion
9) Konami $ 1.2 billion
10) Capcom $ 950 million

As of
Jordan Marx
The Evolution of Video Gaming in the 20th Century
Two engineers created the first successful coin-operated video arcade games
In 1972 they created a company and called it Atari
Atari hired young creative people including a 19-year-old named Steve Jobs, who worked there from
1974 to 1976 when he formed Apple
Atari used the idea of Ralph Baer’s tennis
game from Odyssey and created a
coin–operated version called Pong
Pong was a huge success, over 35,000
machines were sold

Games of Yesterday Games of Today Games of the Future?
Full transcript